The underneath surface of a beam, lintel, arch, etc.

Soil Pipe

The branch pipe that connects the closet or urinal with the soil stack.

Soil Stack

The vertical pipe line that leads from the soil pipe to the house drain.


The distance between supports of a joist, beam, etc.


The written or printed description of materials, workmanship, etc., that accompany the working drawings of a building.

Standing Finish

The wood finish secured to the walls.


The vertical members of a built up part such as a door, window, panel, etc. See Plate 52.


The wood shelf across the bottom and inside of a window. See Plate 49.


The supporting timber at the end of stair steps. See Plate 59.


Cement plaster for outside work.

Style (of architecture). The distinguishing characteristics as fixed by the Order used or by the type of roof, windows, doors, walls and other details in combination.


The stepped base of a Greek temple. See Plate 64.


A depression in a roof, etc., to receive the rain water and deliver it to the down-spout. See Plate 55.


The flat division band between the architrave and the frieze of the Doric Order. See Plate 64.


A pattern for use in cutting irregular stones such as the voussoirs of an arch, etc.


A raised bank of earth.

Terra Cotta

A burned clay of fine quality, much used for ornamental work on the exterior of buildings.


The short horizontal pipe leading through a chimney wall into the flue.


The stone, wood or metal piece directly under a door.


The opening from a fireplace into the smoke chamber. See Plate 61.


A projecting bead cut on the edge of one board to fit into a corresponding groove on the edge of another piece.


Ornamental curving bars across an opening. They usually occur in Gothic buildings and are cut from stone. See Plate 37.


The horizontal member which divides an opening into parts; see Plate 51. It is also applied to a small window built over a door.

Transom Bar

Same as the first use of Transom.


A water-seal in a sewage system to prevent sewer gas from entering the building.


The horizontal board or surface of a step.


An ornamental lattice made up of wooden strips to support vines.


One of the drawing instruments described on page 9 and Plate 3.


A grooved plate, ornamenting the frieze of the Doric Order. See Plates 64, 65, and 66.


The finishing frame around an opening.

Trimmer Arch

The supporting arch beneath a hearth. See Plate 61.


A framework made up of triangular units for supporting loads over long spans. See Plate 36.

T Square

A drawing instrument for ruling parallel horizontal lines. See page 9 and Plate 3.


The triangular portion of wall under the sloping cornice of a classic building.


A new part of a wall or pier, built under an existing part.


The gutter formed by the intersection of two roof slopes.

Valley Rafter

The rafter extending along under a valley.


An arched ceiling or roof.


A thin covering of valuable material over a less expensive body.

Vent Pipes

Small ventilating pipes extending from each fixture of the plumbing system to the vent stack.

Vent Stack

The vertical pipe connecting with the vent pipes and extending through the roof. It carries off the gasses and prevents the water-seal from siphoning out of the traps.

Verge Boards

The boards suspended from the verge of a gable. They are sometimes highly ornamented.


A small entrance room.


A view down an avenue or a path between shrubbery, etc.


A feature of the Ionic capital. See Plates 67 and 68.


One of the sections or blocks of an arch.


An ornamental or protective covering of walls, often consisting of wood panels.

Wall Plate

See Plate 46.

Waste Pipe

The pipe connecting lavatories and sinks with the waste stack.

Waste Stack

The vertical pipe which conducts waste water from the waste pipes to the house drain.

Water Table

A projecting, sloping member around a building near the ground to throw the rain water away from the wall.

Weather Boarding

The finished horizontal boarding of an outside wall. See Plate 24.


A section of a building extending out from the main part.


The curved portion of a hand rail as at a landing. See Plate 59.


The horizontal top member of a window frame. See Plate 49.