(21.) Inspection of Food generally. It is an offence under the Markets and Fairs Clauses Act, 1847, to sell "unwholesome meat or provisions" in a Market or Fair, and any inspector of provisions appointed under that Act may seize such articles and convey them before a justice. The Public Health Act, 1875, has a list of articles as follows: - "Any animal, carcase, meat, poultry, game, flesh, fish, fruit, vegetables, corn, bread, flour, or milk", - which, if they appear to a Medical Officer of Health or Inspector to be unsound, unwholesome, or diseased, may be seized, condemned by a magistrate, and the offender punished by fine or even imprisonment. The list of articles is imperfect,because it omits cheese, butter, and eggs, bat Section 28 of the Public Health Amendment Act extends the application of the Act to all articles intended for the food of man, and upon evidence from any person (sanitary officer or not), a magistrate may condemn unfit food under that section.

(22.) Milk. Unsound, diseased, or unwholesome milk may be dealt with by taking it before a magistrate and having it condemned (Public Health Act, 1875, §117).

Under the Contagious Diseases Animals Acts, 1878-1893, the Local Government Board has power to make general or special Orders: (A) For the registration of dairymen, cow-keepers, or purveyors of milk; (B) For the inspection of cattle in dairies, and regulating the lighting, ventilating, cleansing, drainage, and water-supply of dairies; (C) For securing the cleanliness of milk-stores, milk-sho|>s, and of milk-vessels; (D) For prescribing precautions to be taken for protecting milk against infection or contamination; and (E) For authorizing Local Authorities themselves to make such regulations.

The Local Government Board has exercised its powers in the Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milk-shops Orders of 1885 and 1886, which deal in considerable detail with the subjects enumerated above.

The Infectious Diseases Prevention Act, 1890, has also a section (§ 4) which was drafted with the idea of giving Medical Officers of Health certain powers of stopping the supply of milk infected, or supposed to be infected, with disease, such as scarlet fever; but the procedure is far too clumsy and long to be of real value.

(23.) Adulteration of Food. Adulteration of food is dealt with by the Sale of F«mh1 and Drugs Acts, and by the Margarine Act. Under the first-mentioned Acts, samples of food and drink (other than water) can be taken and submitted to a public analyst; on receipt of his certificate, proceedings may be taken should the article be adulterated. The Margarine Act compels the labelling of margarine, and also gives facilities for samples to be taken and analysed.

(24.) Substitution of Horse-flesh for Beef. The Sale of Horse-flesh Regulation Act, 1889, compels any seller of the flesh of horses, asses, or mules, for human food, to legibly label their shops or stalls, indicating that they sell horse-flesh. The Act gives special powers of inspection to sanitary officers, and makes it an offence to sell horse-flesh for other meat, or to mix it with other meat without declaring the mixture.