Fig. 288   Section of the Twin basin Closet.

Fig. 288 - Section of the Twin-basin Closet.

The next class of apparatus to be considered is one in which the water used for Hushing is the waste-water from a sink or sinks, and is not specially laid on for the purpose. These closets are known as " slop-closets ", and the particular kind we propose to describe is that of the •• tumbler " or "tipper " closets. The advantages claimed for this kind of closet are (1) that they are less expensive to fit up than any other kind: (2) only slop-water is used for flushing, and no charge can be made for water-rate in respect of them; (3) they are not affected by frost; and (4) they are, with fair usage, not liable to get out of order. They are, however, only suitable for out-door closets, and for a working-class population. The tipper or tumbler can be fixed either immediately under the seat, or at a distance. In the first case, the seat must be fixed in such a position in relation to the sink (down the waste-pipe of which the slop-water is poured) as to allow sufficient fall for the water. The second arrangement is applicable where there is not sufficient fall to allow of the former.

Water Closets 30040Fig. 289   Plan and Section of Duckett's Automatic Slop water Closet.

Fig. 289 - Plan and Section of Duckett's Automatic Slop-water Closet.

As an example of the first class, Fig. 289 shows a plan and section of Duckett's patent automatic slop-water closet. The apparatus consists of a circular pedestal, E, of glased earthenware; below this is a basin, D, into which the box, b, containing the tipper, a, opens - either directly or by means of the drain-pipes shown. The basin is set on a syphon-trap of ordinary form, g, and around the outlet is a raised rim or stop, which forms a sort of shallow channel all round. This arrangement has the effect of causing a sort of whirlpool action to the water disobliged from the tipper, end effectually clears out of the basin everything that is deposited by legitimate use. The capacity of the tipper is 3 gallons, and its action is perfectly automatic. The sloping pan f, is not so good a form as the upright pedestal, and may be replaced by a second vertical pan. c is the grate over which the sink-waste discharges.

Another good example of this form of closet is Oates and Green's "Skroy" waste-water closet (Fig. 290). The general form is very similar to the foregoing, the chief difference being that a slight depression in the pan, c, under the pedestal takes the place of the annular arrangement in Duckett's closet. B is the tipper, D the trap, and a the pedestal, on which the wood seat, E, is fixed where ordinary arrangements for tubing would be likely to be misused or altogether neglected. For blocks of buildings inhabited by the rougher class of labourers and the like, they are eminently fitted. Hut wherever used, they should be out of doors, and have the most careful and constant supervision. An apparatus, in which faecal matter is of necessity kept for some hours, is one which obviously demands to be used with discretion and kept with care.

Other forms of slop-closets, differing somewhat in detail, but all designed with the object of utilizing the slop-water of a house for flushing purposes, may be seen illustrated in a very interesting and valuable Report by Dr. Parsons on "Slop-closets and Trough-closets".1 The trough water-closet is one in which two or more closets discharge into a common trough, which is emptied from time to time either automatically or by pulling up a plug. In the automatic kind, the water is maintained at a constant level in the trough by means of a weir, and flushing is effected by a cistern furnished with a syphon. Fig. 291 shows a section of Bowes, Scott, and Western's trough-closet with flushing cistern. The whole arrangement is made in glazed earthenware, and the cistern is provided with one of Mr. Rogers Field's annular syphons. Trough water-closets are specially suitable for schools, and for places

Fig. 290   Section of Oates and Green's Skroy Waste  water Closet.

Fig. 290 - Section of Oates and Green's "Skroy" Waste -water Closet.

1 Extracts from the annual Report of the Medical Officer to the Local Government Board in 1890, London ,1892.

Besides the apparatus illustrated, there are several forms, both in cast-iron and in enamelled or salt-glazed fire-clay, many of which are equally fitted for the purposes they have to serve. The important points arc that there should be a sufficient quantity of water in the trough, but that it should not be wasted; and that the periodical Hushing should be automatic, and quite beyond the control of those using the closets. The closets should also be separated one from another in the trough itself, by partitions dipping into the water. This can also be managed by providing each closet with an ordinary cone-shaped basin, the lower part of which dips about l 1/2 inches into the water in the trough. It will be noticed that this separation is not effected in the trough-closet illustrated.

Fig. 281. Section of Trough closet with Automatic Flushing Tank.

Fig. 281.-Section of Trough-closet with Automatic Flushing Tank.

The apparatus, that have been hitherto dealt with, may all be classed together under the head of "mechanical" closets. We have now to consider what, for want of a better name, may be called non-mechanical" apparatus. The difference consists in this: that in the former class, the arrangement for controlling the flush of water is in close connection with the basin and forms part of it, while in the latter the mechanical parts are connected with a cistern. and form no part of the basin or closet The various apparatus coming under the head of "non-mechanical" comprise the following: hopper, wash-out. wash-down or short-hopper, and syphonic.