This section is from the "Architectural Iron And Steel, And Its Application In The Construction Of Buildings" book, by WM. H. Birkmire.. Also see Amazon: Architectural Iron And Steel, And Its Application In The Construction Of Buildings.
Before any girder, as before mentioned, to be used in any building shall be so used, the architect or the manufacturer of or contractor for it shall, if required so to do by the superintendent of buildings, submit for his examination and approval a diagram showing the loads to be carried by said girder, and the strains produced by such load, and also showing the dimensions of the materials of which said girder is to be constructed, to provide for the said strains ; and the manufacturer or contractor shall cause to be marked upon said girder, in a conspicuous place, the weight said girder will sustain, and no greater weight than that marked on such girder shall be placed thereon.
Before any beam, lintel or girder intended to span an opening over ten feet in length, in any building, shall be used for supporting a wall, the manufacturer or founder thereof, or the owner, shall have the said beam, lintel or girder inspected, and if required by the superintendent of buildings shall have the same tested by actual weight or pressure thereon, under the direction and supervision of an inspector authorized by the superintendent of buildings. Said manufacturer, founder or owner shall notify the superintendent of buildings, in writing, of the time when, and the place where, said inspection and test may be made, and said inspector shall cause the weight which each of said beams, lintels, or girders will safely sustain, to be properly stamped or marked in a conspicuous place thereon, and no greater weight shall be put or placed upon any beam, lintel or girder than that stamped or marked thereon by said inspector. In case any beam, girder or lintel, or any iron column shall be rejected by said inspector as unfit or insufficient to be used for the purpose proposed, the same shall not be used for such purpose, in or upon, or about any building or part thereof. All iron and steel work used in any building shall be of the best material and made in the best manner, properly painted with oxide of iron and linseed-oil paint before being placed in position, or coated with some other equally good preparation or suitably treated for preservation against rust.
Every beam, except header and tail beams, shall rest at one end four inches in the wall, or upon a girder as authorized by this title. And every header or trimmer more than four feet long used in any building, shall be hung in stirrup irons of suitable thickness for the size of timbers.
Each tier of beams shall be anchored to the side, front, rear or party walls at intervals of not more than six feet apart, with good, strong wrought-iron anchors not less than one and a half inches by three eighths of an inch, well fastened to the side of the beams by two or more nails made of wrought iron at least one fourth of an inch in diameter. Where the beams are supported by girders, the girders shall be anchored to walls and fastened to each other by suitable iron straps. The ends of beams resting upon girders shall be butted together end to end and strapped by wrought-iron straps of the same size and distance apart, and in the same beam as the wall anchors, and shall be fastened in the same manner as said wall anchors, or they may lap each other at least twelve inches and be well spiked or bolted together where lapped. Every pier and wall, front or rear, shall be well anchored to the beams of each story, with the same size anchors as are required for the side walls, which anchors shall hook over the second beam. Each tier of beams, front and rear, oppo site each pier shall have hard wood or Georgia pine anchor strips dovetailed into the beams diagonally, which strips shall cover at least four beams, and be one inch thick and four inches wide, but no such anchor strips shall be let in within four feet of the centre line of the beams; or wooden strips may be nailed on the top of the beams and kept in place until the floors are being laid.
No wooden floor beams nor wooden roof beams used in any building other than a frame building, hereafter erected, shall be of a less thickness than three inches. All trimmer and header beams shall not be less than one inch thicker than the floor or roof beams on the same tier, where the header is four feet or less in length; and where the header is more than four feet and not more than fifteen feet in length the trimmer and header beams shall be at least double the thickness of the floor or roof beams, or shall each be made of two iron beams forming such thickness properly spiked or bolted together, and when the header is more than fifteen feet in length wrought-iron flitch-plates of proper thickness and depth shall be placed between two wooden beams suitably bolted together to and through the iron plates in constructing the trimmer and header beams; or wrought-iron or wrought-steel beams of sufficient strength may be used.