Below this floor again is a basement, reached externally by stairs in an area, which passes across the narrow front of the building, and has a mortuary at one end of it in the form of an excavated cellar. The kitchen entrance is also in the middle of this sunk area. The kitchens, servants' hall, and scullery are in the front portion, with a servants' bathroom close to the servants' hall and underneath the secretary's office. There is also a dormitory underneath the accident ward. The larder accommodation, if not extensive, would be sufficient in a city where food is easily procurable, and upon a small site is as much as it has been possible to obtain. There is a small room for a heating apparatus, and also a small washhouse and linen-store, but probably the greater part of the washing would be sent out, as is usually done in London.

The English Hospital at Constantinople, designed by Mr. H. Percy Adams, F.R.I.B.A., is an example of exceedingly skilful and unusual planning upon an awkward site, under climatic conditions demanding that as much air as possible should be admitted to the building, while a central tower was desirable for purposes of effect. The general scheme is that of three wards radiating from a large twelve-sided centre, up which the principal staircase and lift are carried. The principal ward floor, which controls the planning more than any other, is the second floor, shown in Fig. 22. The wards here are intended for the use of sailors. Each contains eight beds, the two principal wards having attached to them a single-bed ward each. Two of the wards have ward kitchens, but their place is taken by a linen-store in the third instance. The two front wards have airing balconies extending along the whole of one side, and reached by patients either in the large ward or in the single ward. All usual means of disconnection are adopted, there being little difference between the arrangement on this floor and that found in an ordinary English hospital in this respect, while the wards are warmed as they would be in England by large Manchester grates. There is a small dayroom also on this floor for the use of the convalescents.

On the third floor (see Fig. 23) only the two front blocks are carried up, and are devoted to bedrooms for the matron and nursing staff, each having her own separate room, while the fourth floor (see Fig. 24) is different from anything which would be found in a cooler country, consisting of flats over the large ward blocks, which are themselves roofed over but open on almost all sides, thus providing large airing balconies sheltered from the sun. These are reached both by the main staircase and the lift, by means of which patients can easily be carried up, and by a small staircase from the nurses' bedrooms. Small shelters are also provided which might form private reading rooms for convalescents, and there is an open gallery round the tower. This central portion is carried up to a considerably greater height, as shown in the small plans of the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth floors. By adoption of the large open-roofed balconies, advantage is taken of the climate to give patients the greatest possible amount of fresh air.

It is now interesting to trace the plan downwards. The first-floor plan (Fig. 25) shows that each of the front blocks is here cut up into a number of small single-bed wards, with matron's room, dayroom, ward kitchen, and nurse's room, providing for proper attendance ; for in such a city as Constantinople the European population, other than sailors, requiring hospital treatment would be such as to demand attention in separate rooms rather than large wards. Each of these wards has a separate fireplace, and the way in which these have been provided is worth a good deal of attention. The third ward-block, that at the back, is given up to a complete series of rooms devoted to operations, there being the usual disconnecting lobby leading to an inner hall and reached immediately from the lift doors. Out of this inner hall there is an anaesthetic-room and a dressing-store, while the operating-room is only reached through the anaesthetic-room, out of which a recovery ward also opens. This operating-room extends somewhat farther than does the ward above it, the outer wall of which is carried by a girder, and thus the necessary top light to the operating table is obtained. This room is large and very completely fitted, having a scullery attached to it.

The ground floor is shown in Fig. 26, and illustrates the awkward shape of the site upon which the building had to be placed. The entrance is planned between the two main front ward-blocks, and is so schemed that, leading directly into a central tower, it should have an exceedingly handsome and eastern effect. The radiating wards above produce, on this floor, a very simple scheme of departmenting, the space in one of the ward-blocks being devoted to the nurses' diningrooms and the matron's stores, that under another to the surgeon's department, and that under the third to the kitchens, while beyond the kitchen block there is a staircase leading down to an open area or courtyard ; and round this, on the ground-floor level, are ranged a series of bedrooms for the kitchen staff. There is, perhaps, no need to explain these premises in detail, for to do so would be only to repeat what has been said before in other cases, but the planning is well worthy of a good deal of careful study, showing, as it does, how essential requirements can be met under difficult circumstances ; for everything is provided here that is necessary for proper service as completely as at the Bedford County Hospital, yet under quite different conditions and in a different way. In fact, upon a restricted site there is a great deal always to be said for a radial arrangement such as is here resorted to.

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Fig. 22.

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Fig. 23.

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