This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol5", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
In the treatment of Gothic doorways, when furnished with lintels, the latter are usually of massive stones or have relieving arches over. The lintels may be also composed of several voussoirs forming a flat arch with the joints radiating from a centre equivalent to the centre of an arch if carried out in the usual method. Such lintels may have the mouldings on the jambs returned round them.
Fig. 166. Section.
A variety may also be introduced by duplicating the doorway, the centre division being a column with cap and base corresponding to similar ones introduced in the reveals of the opening. This method relieves the strain on the lintels.
A variety is obtained by carrying up the members of the reveals in the form of an arch, and filling up the space between the lintel and the soffit with a tympanum, on which either bas-relief or heraldic devices can be carved. Lastly, the space over the lintel can be filled in with tracery and glass inserted. In this case the lintel is more properly styled a transome.
Many doorways are designed without lintels, and the doors shaped to the curves of the arch. In these cases it is necessary to provide sufficient space to admit of the doors opening either outwards or inwards, as may be required.
It is customary to carry up the reveals to such a height as to give free play to the highest part of the door when open to its fullest extent, and to carry the reveals over as flattened or segmental arches.
In the illustration of the front elevation of the Wesleyan Church at Tooting (Fig. 155) is to be found part of the front and a section of the main entrance.
The doorway proper is composed of two doors with a flat lintel over. The face is ornamented with an architrave carried up to the lintel and returned around it with scroll work and ornamental panels, with carving over the centres of the openings. By an ingenious arrangement a bold arch is thrown over between the outer member and the wall face, impinging against the buttresses on which it dies. This forms, by its projection from the main wall, a porch giving shelter from the rain, and also protecting the door proper from weather.
The outer arch is deeply moulded, and the mouldings die into the face of the vertical buttress walls, as already explained in a previous paragraph. Behind the arch, and between it and the face of the main wall, the arched space is formed, with a soffit following the lines of the outer arch, but recessed and somewhat splayed inwards.
The upper part is filled in with masonry or brickwork and finished flat, forming a floor protected with asphalt on the upper part. The outer arch is carried above the level of this floor, and finished with a horizontal moulded coping forming a parapet.
Mouldings Gothic mouldings differ in many respects from the Classic, although some of them have a close resemblance to mouldings employed in the latter style. For instance, some Early English bases are almost identical with what is termed the "attic" base, and other forms also will be seen on a close scrutiny to bear a close analogy to their Classic forerunners.
The simplest form of adornment for angles next to the square is the chamfered edge. This is devised by the cutting away of the sharp angle at an angle of 45 degrees from the face, as shown in Fig. 167 and at a in Fig. 168.
This can be terminated over an impost, if in an arch, by stopping the chamfer a little above the abacus, and cutting a double splay from the square face below to die into the chamfer (see Fig. 167). This is termed the " Broach." The next advance results in the "Edge roll " (b, Fig. 168), and the "Quirked bead," or three-quarter round (c) on the angle formed by the face and reveal of the opening.
Differing slightly from this is the "Bowtell," which is arrived at by leaving the salient angle of the above example and cutting the recessed portions or quirks (d).
We next have the "scroll" mould, so called from its resemblance to a roll of paper or parchment with the edge projecting (c).
A very effective moulding is shown in a combination of the bowtell with hollows and fillets (f).
Another and very striking mould is the bowtell with fillets and hollows (g), while the next example illustrates the application of the fillet to the bowtell (h), and is more of a variety of the pointed bowtell than a distinct entity in itself. Sometimes three fillets are introduced (as at /'), at others only two, both having a certain value as ornament.
A very handsome moulding, and one that can be introduced in door jambs and other openings in a very effective manner, is the double ogee (k), while yet another moulding, closely allied to the last example, is the wave moulding (/).
Generally speaking, the above mouldings, grouped together in pairs or more, or arranged in sets with hollows at intervals, will serve to make up any form or grouping of moulds suitable for ordinary practice.
Variations of the above, such as flattening the fillets and bowtell moulding, are mere caprices in matters of form or indications of date, and can be introduced in any convenient number to suit individual taste, - though it should always be done with consideration for the shape of the block of stone out of which they are to be cut.
Fig. 169 illustrates a group consisting of rolls and hollows, in three ranges or tiers, the rectangular blocks out of which they are cut being readily traceable.
In grouping a set of mouldings certain rules should be observed respecting the planes in which they lie and from which they base their departure.
The first may be taken as being parallel with the wall face; the second as a chamfer, usually at an angle of 45 degrees with the wall face; and the third at right angles.
These being set out, or any one of them, the proposed plane can be divided up in the usual way by hollows, and the groups then elaborated. Care should be taken to bring all salient points of the groups into line with their respective planes, to avoid cutting on the one hand and for uniformity and symmetry on the other.
In cutting mouldings the mason will first prepare the faces or planes, as mentioned above, and, on the beds, will draft by means of a template (cut to the accurate section of the moulding) and a chisel, or pointer, the exact section of the mouldings as designed by the architect, finishing the operation as already explained in a former chapter.
In window openings the inner set or group of mouldings should coincide with the mullions (if any) of the window, so that the tracery will mitre above and present a homogeneous aspect to the eye (see Fig. 170).