The works, which cost about ,50,000, have been carried out from plans and under the supervision of Mr. Charles D'Ebro, Assoc.M. Inst.C.E. of Melbourne, an Australian expert in freezing works design.

Narada (Fig. 223) is a typical old sheep station in the western district of Victoria, at the foot of the Anakie Ranges, which has been recently remodelled by Messrs. Laird & Barlow, architects.

The old walls were of cobble stone masonry, and have been renewed with bluestone quarried near the house, the planning being generally brought up to modern requirements, including liberal verandah space. There are offices, too, for bookkeeper and men; but the planning of the old building is elementary, with a dark central passage on each floor.

The water supply is by gravitation from the ranges, with storage in tower over lounge. The dairy has double walls and roof, and is partly under ground. There is a septic tank system of sewerage, the effluent being used in irrigation for the growing of lucerne.

The homestead at Mulwala, on the Murray River, N.S.W. (Fig. 224), has been built for a sheep squatter in the hot district of N.S. Wales, where the summer temperature averages 116° in the shade, the architect being Mr. W. M. Shields.

The Australian preference for a one-storeyed building is here well illustrated, and the planning is characterised by a 9 feet verandah all round the main apartments, from which they are reached rather than by means of internal corridors; while passages for cross ventilation are specially arranged. All doors and windows are fitted with fly and insect-proof wire-netting, and the walls are all built hollow, of bricks manufactured on the site. The timbers are of native red gum, with flooring of Murray pine. These woods are used as white ants are a pest in this district, being proof against them.

The roof is covered with heavy gauge galvanised corrugated iron, for the purpose of obtaining a supply of drinking water, the ceilings being covered with insulating material. vol. v. - 12

Another example of an Australian homestead is Tocumwal (Fig. 225), designed by Mr. Arthur Peck, F.R.V.I.A. In this case the central passage, so much used in the older Australian houses, is carried right through, and so can be utilised tor ventilation. The verandah is carried right round the house, and a covered way leads from it to a separate block containing the laundry and detached w.c.'s, the approach being so placed as to be screened from view from almost the whole of the verandah. The kitchen is at the extremity of an extended wing, and can easily be disconnected by cross ventilation if desired.

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Fig. 221.

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Fig. 222.

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Fig. 223.

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Fig. 224.

The plan shown in Fig. 226 is for stabling accommodation for a country doctor's horses in a hot district of Australia. The various apartments are arranged conveniently under cover and all under one general roof, the portion over stalls and loose-box being two storey, for the double purpose of loft accommodation and keeping stalls, etc., cool. There is little difference, it will be noticed, between this and an English stable of similar size.

Fig. 225. New Homestead Tocumwal New South Wales

Fig. 225. New Homestead Tocumwal New South Wales.

The coach-house roof is protected by insulating material, and the washing area in front of same is so arranged as to protect vehicles from the direct rays of the hot sun when being washed, a provision much needed to prevent destruction of paint and varnish.

Instead of ordinary feed racks at the head of stalls supplied from above, a well is provided in loft floor for the purpose of lowering hay and bedding to stalls, etc., below.

Instead of chaff being bagged, as is usual, a chaff-in-bulk room is provided. By this means the chaff is kept absolutely free from mice and other vermin. The supply is passed through an outside trap door and staging direct from carts, and slot boards are provided in place of the ordinary inside door. An outside door is provided to loose-box, giving access to sand bath.

In this wood-frame building the walls are entirely constructed of locally grown hard wood, with outside covering of imported red deal weather-boards. All posts, bottom rails, plates, stumps, etc., near or in ground are of picked red gum, twice coated with boiling tar. The internal partitions, etc., are of picked hand-dressed local hard wood, and the general pavings of Melbourne bricks.

Mr. W. M. Shields, F.R.V.I.A., is the architect.

Fig. 227 is a plan of stabling for an Australian sheep station homestead, and shows generous accommodation for various kinds of horses and vehicles. The buildings form part of the homestead block, which comprises also shearing sheds and other necessary buildings for the work and the workmen engaged upon the place.

A Dairy and Butter Factory may be defined as a building for the receipt and storage of milk and cream, and its manufacture into butter or some other marketable product. Some years ago the Victorian Government offered a bonus for the manufacture and export of butter, which the invention of the separator and the establishment of freezing chambers for oversea carriage rendered both possible and profitable; and since that date the industry, advancing by leaps and bounds, has grown to enormous proportions, so that to-day the butter factory, with its outlying creameries dotted around it, like satellites about a planet, is a necessary adjunct in every country centre.

A general knowledge of the proper handling of milk and cream, their treatment, and the various processes to which they are subjected in their manufacture into butter or cheese, together with an intimate acquaintance with the mechanical units which constitute the plant and the proper placing and housing of same, are a necessary equipment for the architect who desires to specialise in this class of work. He should also be conversant with modern methods of cold storage and refrigeration, and in the northern parts of the State in particular must give his attention to the economical construction of cool well-ventilated buildings in timber and iron.