The variety of designs, their composition, their colour, and the manner in which the quarries are combined, present an inexhaustible means of decoration from which everyone can draw according to his taste. Let us first give some specimens of French manufacture (Figs. 749 to 758). The groundwork of the pavement (Fig. 749) is composed of the quarries 755 and 757, and is framed with the square 756 and the border 754. The grouping of four quarries (Fig. 752) round 753 produces the pattern 750. The quarry 752, used alone, gives a different effect when arranged as a border.
The English manufacture is of very varied styles, which change less often than in France, and, for that reason, are lower in price. This is due to a different method of work. An English house issues at great expense magnificent catalogues with which it will work for a number of years. All the types mentioned in the catalogues are made in large quantities; the patterns and colours are invariable, and therefore the cost is lower. In France, public taste demands frequent changes in the types made, and this causes an increase in prices, as the quantity made of the same quarry does not sufficiently repay the always large outlay.
Figs. 749 to 758. Incrusted Quarries from Auneuil (Boulenger).
It would be impossible to mention all the important houses making incrusted quarries in England. Among the best known are: Messrs Carter & Co., Doulton & Co., Maw & Co., Minton, Hollins, & Co., Woolliscroft & Son, etc.; all of them produce pieces which arc excellent both in quality and ornamentation.
Plain quarries are generally red, black, yellow, and grey; their shape is square (Figs. 766, 768), hexagonal (Fig. 759), or octagonal (Figs. 770, 771).
The combination of these quarries, together or with others, produces patterns of infinite variety (Figs. 763 to 771). Stoneware quarries are easily broken into small pieces, which are used for making coloured mosaics more varied and much more durable than those of marble; this is of great importance in the paving of much - frequented places, such as public halls, cafes, hotels, etc.
Figs. 759 to 774. Plain and Incrusted Stoneware Quarries (Carter & Co.).
These mosaics may be arranged in various ways. For instance, the little cubes may be placed in concentric circles (Figs, 773, 774); flowers (Fig. 778), geometrical patterns (Fig.
Figs. 775 to 779 - Intrusted Quarries (Encaustic and Mosaic Tiles of Minton, Hollins, & Co.).
786), or lastly letters (Figs. 780, 787), may be made with them.
In these mosaics the pieces are always irregular; regular mosaics (Fig. 775) are formed with little uniform cubes made by special machines.
Figs. 776, 777, 779, 781, 782, 783, 785 show the numerous combinations which can be effected with incrusted quarries. These illustrations lack the charm of colour which makes the pavements so attractive and agreeable to the eye. (See Plate I).
Figs. 780 to 787. Incrusted Quarries (Encaustic and Mosaic Tiles of Maw & Co.).
The firm of Minton, Hollins, & Co. have executed some important pavements of incrusted quarries in England, especially that in the Palace of Westminster. The patterns of this pavement are remarkable and most effective in spite of the fact that only two colours, yellow and red, are used. Its great wearing qualities must also be noted: although laid down more than fifty years ago, it has borne the considerable traffic of the corridors and central hall without appreciable damage to the incrustations. The pavements of the South Kensington Museum, laid down by the same firm, are polychrome, and are in the form of mosaics of varied tints resembling the patterns shown in Figs. 775 and 776.