Quarries should be stacked so as to occupy as little space as possible. The kilns may be direct-draught or reverberatory. The quarries when fired arc trimmed on the grindstone, or with a special machine, which consists of a large horizontal cast-iron wheel, covered with damped polishing sand. The facing side of the quarries is applied to the grindstone.
The enamel used is always stanniferous, and is of the same composition as the one described for faience quarries. The German enamels are more alkaline than the French, as will be seen from the subjoined analyses -
Oxide of tin.......
Oxide of lead.......
For a long time white enamel was the one most used, but for the last few years various darker tints such as green, brown, blue-grey, or greenish have been applied; they are obtained by means of stanniferous opaque enamels, or transparent coloured enamels, laid over dips. The stones have been given an architectural style (Figs. 856 to 860), imitated or modernised from ancient forms.
Figs. 856 to 860 represent some types of stoves manufactured by the firm of Loebnitz. The Renaissance stove (Fig. 857) is faced with quarries; the angles and cornice are formed of moulded pieces. The Gothic stove (Fig. 859) is also formed of a collection of quarries; the other decorative parts are moulded and afterwards enamelled.
The usual stove of Parisian dining-rooms is shown in Fig. 858; it is formed of straight panels curved for angles, supported by braces of polished copper. The base of these stoves is generally split, and this is due, not to the composition of the faience, but to the method of putting together the stoves. A certain amount of play should be given to allow for expansion. But all the pieces are fitted closely together in order to get a fine appearance; hence ruptures occur.
These are plates which form the frame of fireplaces; they are made like the preceding quarries. They may be white or decorated. The simplest are plain, and usually enamelled in white; other and richer ones have more or less artistic decorations in colour, executed upon unbleached enamel. Figs. 861, 862, and 863 show different panels of this kind from the workshops of the well-known faience stove-maker, M. Loebnitz.
Figs. 856 to 860. Decorative Stoves, Loebnitz Types.
Another economical style of decoration has been introduced by the same manufacturer. It is obtained by a special moulded embossment; to this embossment are applied enamels of light and dark brown, or other colours, which harmonise with the general decoration of the piece (Fig. 864).
Figs. 86l to 863. Decorated Panels for Mantelpieces.
Fig. 864. Terra-cot ta Chimney piece with Embossed Panels (Loebnitz).