232. Let us now give our attention to the drapery. The arranging of the draperies depends much upon the quality of the stuff. Thin, light stuff produces smaller folds, and plaits in greater quantity than heavy, thick, or stiff material. Furthermore, it is to be considered whether the garment covers large or small forms, or whether it hangs down loose and free. Large forms must not be interrupted by small folds, and the drapery should Indicate whether the covered part is of an angular, or round, or plain, or curved shape, for all folds ought to indicate their cause, whether the same is the proper heaviness of the material, or is produced through draught, pressure, or other influences. All folds form triangles, and the reason of this is, that a garment is always trying to expand; if it is forced from one side to contract, it expands on the other side in the same measure. Folds must, therefore, never appear round or quadrangular, for the quadrangular shape is insufferable, except when it forms two divided triangles. It is also bad taste to place two folds of equal size, shape, and illumination side by side. Upon the garment of a living person, the movement of his limbs is the only cause of the position and variety of the folds. The ancients arranged large folds upon large parts of the human body, and did not suffer the same to be interrupted by smaller folds. If they were forced by the nature of the garment to do it, they made the illustrate - if the head be turned two points away from the camera, the body remain-

233. And before the lens is uncovered, and the exposure made, be very certain that the eyes of the sitter are keeping with all the rest. They may spoil all, if wrongly directed. Once more, measure the picture by the principles laid down in Leeson A. and if it is right - expose! small transverse folds to small mid little raised, that it was obvious they could not indicate main parts.

In all cases where the garment does dot strictly correspond with the naked form it covers, and does not follow the direction of the muscles, the casting of the draperies will be defective.

Our modern fashion renders it often impossible to discern the shape of the body under the garment, and we are forced to make concessions to the sway of fashion; but in cases where unbecoming folds have been caused through bad cutting, or casual pressure, or draught, and the photographer could not avoid them in the arrangement, it is our task to remedy the defects in the picture. Next to the lightness or heaviness, the transparency or opacity of the material, its lustre or roughness is of importance; also its design and colors are main factors Velvet ought to be well distinguished from cotton, silk from satin, etc. White garments and linen taken in glaring light appear usually without any medium tone, hardly, so that the shade is slightly indicated, and the retoucher has many difficulties to fill out the empty space, so that his sketchings may look natural. The photographer ought always to try to prevent this evil through subdued illumination, as the harmony in the picture is disturbed large light masses. - Hans Hartman.

233. We will suppose the sitter to be the centre of a circle with diverging lines, like the hub of a wheel, with its radiating spokes. Suppose this wheel twenty feet in diameter, and the spokes one foot apart at the periphery. The junction of these spokes with the rim we will call points, like a compass.

Place the sitter at the hub, looking straight before him - body, face, and eyes to the camera ten feet away, at the outer edge of the circle. This may be called a position of neutrality, impassive, inactive. Now, the body remaining in front, the head and eyes turning to the right or left, if ever so little, there begins to be expressed activity? thought, emotion; in which the eyes play an important part, and a part that may be largely brought under control, else there were no use describing it.

: front, the eyes to express an easy, animated, but not deeply interested attention, should be turned nearly to the third point. When the head turns from the body to the fourth point, the eyes to correspond should turn nearly to the sixth, thus expressing the same kind of easy, natural interest, but more active and more interested; and this corresponding divergence amounts nearly to a definite ratio, whether the turning be more or less, being as two to one; two of the head from the body, to one of the eyes from the face. Or, in other words, in turning the eyes to an easy point right or left, the head naturally turns about two-thirds the distance.

This ratio of divergence we will call normal, and we shall find it giving about the kind of expression generally preferred in portraiture. Moreover, we shall see that any deviation from this normal relation immediately begins to express something different, often something not at all desired. For instance, the body remaining front, with the face and eyes both turned full upon the third or sixth, or any intermediate point, there would immediately begin to appear an absorbed, deeply interested gaze, expressing anxiety, surprise, or other emotion, according to the rest of the face and action; while should the face remain fronting with the body, directly toward the camera, when the eyes turned two or three points away, there would immediately appear an uneasy, insincere, jealous, watching expression, not at all pleasant.

234. In addition to instructions given in Lesson A, a few words may not be out of place as to the means used for securing the effects of light and shade described as the most desirable. Resort may be had to side-screens, mirrors, and reflectors, provided they are employed for legiti mate effect only, and not for experiment or in wild reaches after aston ishing effects hard to understand.

Varying the illustration by placing the body fronting the third point away from the instrument, while the face turned to the first point away, and the eyes into the camera, you will have an easy, direct, sincere, manly attention; while, if you place head and body both fronting point three, when the eyes are turned full upon the camera, you obtain at once shyness, coquetry, suspicion, or other similar expression, according to the other facial action. Then, if you front the body upon three, while face and eyes both turn full upon the camera, there would begin to appear a bold, domineering, look-you-out-of-countenance sort of expression, or similar undesirable effect.