The same principle holds good in looking upward; for instance, the head slightly raised, with the eyes about half as much more, may express spiritual contemplation, adoration, supplication, etc., according to the accompaniment, while the face remaining level or slightly drooped, with the eyes still turned upward, looking as they must somewhat from under the eyebrows, will express a cowardly shrinking, a sinister watching, or suppressed anger, according to the other features.

These hints might be greatly elaborated, but the intelligent beginner will place his camera before the sitter and multiply these illustrations to any extent. The main thing to thoroughly understand is that in every modification and turn of position, these relations of the eyes and face will express something, and if not controlled to express what is desired, may give expressions quite undesirable. - E. K. Hough.

234. If, then, the results of a side reflection are so disastrous, should it not be discarded altogether? We think not, and will try to show its proper use, which is to soften the shadows and make them transparent with delicate reflected lights, which, while they may oppose the principal light, yet have no vigorous contention with it, and are mere echoes of its intensity. These little reflected lights, like the reverberations of a musical sound from the walls of a room, really strengthen and enrich the original tone. Without them the shadows, even if well worked out, become rigid, and give a too solid, hard appearance to the head.

The proper effect is often produced without actually employing a white screen, but that is because the walls and objects in the operating-room take its place and supply the reflections. Their influence is always felt, and in bright weather is usually quite suflicient, if the face is placed at a proper angle to the light; unless we are taking a shadow picture, when a regular side-screen is indispensable, probably without exception. - W. J. Baker.

I have had occasion to work under high skylights, and small ones, and an expedient that I have resorted to is to use a mirror. It is a good thing to have in every studio. You can throw off the top-light as much as you like, and use the mirror, and hang it on the screens.

285. Inward and outward screens, for top and ride, have already been described in Lesson J. There is no end to the. way in which they may be employed, and aome of the best thoughts on the snbjet given in the notes. If you have once decided in your mind what is the beat effect to obtain for the subject in hand, and you cannot get it by the ususal means of lighting, then resort can be had to the hand screen with much good effect during whole or part of the exposure.

You can skut off the light from the top - light and use your side - light. You can put it on either side you please; shut off the top-light entirely, or get a little of it - enough to soften your shadows. - Alexander Hesler..

235. Doubtless ninety per cent, of all the photographic studios in the world are sufficiently well lighted to allow of the production in them of good pictures, provided the light entering them is managed and directed in the - Lest manner practicable. And in this management the arrangement of the window-curtains is of great and paramount importance, a feature which, in many cases, seems to have been overlooked or greatly neglected, and the management of the light more generally sought through the means of shades or screens, in frames, or in the hands of the operator. I am acquainted with several large establishments in which the curtains are arranged on rollers at the top or bottom of the light, both side and top, in such a manner as to render a large portion of the window practically useless, besides incumbering the places with a maze of rollers and cords often out of order, and requiring considerable skill and a large amount of time for their adjustment.

During the last eight years I have used, with perfect satisfaction, a simple system which allows any part or all the window surface to be opened or closed, as may be desirable. This is accomplished by single widths of colored muslin which run across the light upon small copper wire, passing through rings upon each edge of the muslin. The strips or widths of muslin should overlap each other some three or four inches, or enough to prevent any open spaces between them. The wires are readily strained sufficiently tight by using screw - eyes instead of nails in putting them up. I prefer copper wire, as its soft, tough properties offer lees resistance to the twist which is caused by turning in the screw - eyes. It does not corrode, and prevent the rings from sliding easily, as is often the case with iron wire. Neither does it break in taking down, whenever the curtains need washing to remove stains or dust. In my own studio I have two sets of light curtains arranged by this method, one set over the other; by this means I am able to modify the light, whatever its intensity, by using either one or both sets, according to the light or cloudy state of the weather. By this system all cords, pulleys, and rollers are discarded, the curtains always remain where placed. They are easily adjusted to position in a moment's time by the use of an ordinary fishing - rod, or three - quarter inch square strip from the edge of a long board. By their use the stronger light may be admitted at any corner, or along cither side or end of the window, or even in the centre when desired, as for statuary or small objects. I believe that any one, after adopting this method, will have no desire to return to any other system with which I am acquainted. Upon trial many will doubtless be surprised at the results produced by an apparently weak light fully utilized. While the light is easy and pleasant for the sitter, the chemical effect is of such a delicate nature as to far surpass all that can be produced in the flooded giare of the ordinary operating-room. - O. G. Mason.

236. At certain times of the year and day, direct sunlight, or reflections from objects altogether outside of the studio, often give great annoyance - so great, sometimes, as to render the studio useless for a few hours. If the screens and curtains do not suffice, resort may be had to coating the glass, though care should be had that the light is not retarded too much by such applications. There is this to be remembered when you apply to any of these helps in lighting the model: strive for natural effects - effects which, when accomplished, will show intent - purpose -feeling - and not serve as puzzles to the critic and mysteries to the patron. Perhaps there is more wildness shown in this matter of lighting than in any other department of photography; but, as ignorance is usually the cause of it, there is hope; and when the photographer begins to yield to the influence of the law, there is hope for him also. Pass your crudeness into the muffle, friends, and you may see it come out changed for the better.

236. A very simple way to avoid reflections of sunlight, which so often annoy us, is as follows: Cover the obnoxious panes with starch-paste until they are dull or half transparent. It may be put on thick or thin, and in winter, when the sun is low and all the light is wanted, warm water will remove it. Starch-paste is a good thing to stand by, and it secures a very complete union between card-board and paper, but, as some do not like it, the following may be of use for producing a good white paste (it sticks like the shirt of Nessus): A solution of two and a half ounces of gum-arabic in warm water is thickened to a paste with wheat flour; to this add a solution of alum and sugar of lead, seventeen hundred and twenty-eight grains each, in the water, is heated and stirred about to boil, and is then cooled. It may be thinned, if necessary, with the gum solution. Blue-frosting used to be a great favorite among photographers, but I rarely see it now upon a skylight. I frequently see the slovenly remains of it; and, as it seems to be difficult for some photographers to get it off their glass, I would recommend the following as very effective: Soft-soap mixed with a solution of potash'or caustic soda, or pearlash and slaked lime mixed with sufficient water to form a paste. It may be laid on with a brush or rag, and when left for some hours will render the removal of blue-frosting very easy. - J. Grasshoff.