296. Photographic prints as a usual thing are divided into two styles - . the "plain" and the "vignetted." The former are - such as are printed from the negative without masking or obscuration of any kind, and the latter are such as are tastefullv blended off from the darkness of the figure towards the outer margins. To accomplish this last effect a great many devices are used, the simplest and best of which are known as Waymouth's Vignette Papers. They are lithographic designs very carefully gradated, printed on superior tissue-paper, and placed over the negative at a short distance therefrom, during exposure to the sun. Several devices have been invented and suggested for adjusting these vignette papers to the negative, the best of which seems to be the invention of Mr. J. F. Singhi. The drawing annexed shows his device in use. a is the printing-frame supposed to contain a negative: over the face of it a light, close-fitting box, about one inch deep, is fastened and held in place by the gum-elastic bands, b b. At each end of the box strips are fastened, forming slots in the result will entirely depend on the amount of artistic skill brought to bear on the operation; but by the judicious use of pencil, brush, and stump, very fine effects in the way of clouds may be produced. It will sometimes happen in an otherwise perfect negative that, owing to the falling off of light towards the edges, the picture will print with dark corners, or one side may be wanting in density from inequality of the film of collodion. In such cases, by the above process of grinding as far as necessary into the picture, and then rubbing in black-lead, the natural effect will be rendered with much greater perfection and delicacy. When the work is completed, if it be thought desirable, the whole may be varnished with negati varnish applied in the ordinary manner; it will thus be fixed, and the untouched part will be restored, or very nearly so, to its original transparency. I should add that for this process it is necessary that the negative should be taken on patent plate glass, and, writing from my own experience, I would earnestly recommend photographers to use none other for all good work. - William Bedford.

Fig. 68.

Lesson R Art In Printing 90

296. When I have a negative which prints too dark for a nice vignette, I treat it in the following manner: Varnish the glass side with Hance's Ground-Glass Substitute; then, with a dusting-brush, dipped in plumbago, proceed to work on sufficient to get the required intenwhich the slide, CH, freely moves from right to left . CH is also provided with strips, forming a second slots in which the next slide, E, freely moves in and out. Over e is a third series of slots, in which the slide, D, moves, provided with an opening, G of any desired size or shape, which opening the Waymouth Vignette Paper, F, is pasted, but turned up at one corner in order to show the opening, G. Now, by means of these slots, it will be seen that once the vignette paper and negative are brought into relation to each other, and held up to the light, the arrange-ment of slots and slides permits the nicest and speediest adjustments to be made, when the printing may be proceeded with. As the attachment fits the printing - frame by fiction, it is raised and lowered to the right distance required between the negative and the vignette paper by means of wooden strips inserted at each end, and tapered to suit. The arrangement very complete, and its results are all one could desire. The vignette printer will remember that the farther the vignette is away from the negative, the more gradual will the gradation he, as well as softer and wider in effect. Used with taste, this device renders artistic vignette-printing a matter of easy accomplishment. Negatives which are to be printed for vignettes should be made with a light background, and never intensified.

297.. There is still another style which is very pretty, known as the sity, being careful not to get any upon the figure; then, with a soft pencil, work up to the figure, making an even coating. This might be taken advantage of to work in clouded grounds if the operator be skilful. I have often made clouds in stereo - negatives by use of the pencil on the ground-glass substitute; I also use it much in copies to strengthen high-lights. In fact, I could not keep house without this valuable substitute. One more hint about using Hance's Ground-Glass Substitute. Should it, in flowing, have a tendency to run over the edge and get upon the varnished side, go around the negative, before flowing, with a piece of beeswax. It will prevent the evil. - Irving Saunders.

If they are to be judiciously used, it is necessary the Waymouth vignette should be removed from the negative all of the way from one-half to one and a half inches, depending somewhat upon the negative and the degree of softness desired to be obtained. The frame is built up with strips of backboard, and the vignette paper fitted to the negative through transmitted light, and then it is tacked in its proper place. They are easily adjusted, and have the advantage of being already made, thus saving the time of the printer in cutting this and that size form out of card - board, which, when done, caused not only a waste of time, but also, except, perhaps, in very rare cases, is not nearly as good. - Charles W. Hearn.

297. In printing the medallion style, now so very popular, nothing can be more simple than the plan adopted at my establishment. A piece of silvered paper (or a worthless print before washing will do) is exposed to the sun until it is fully blackened. This is laid upon a piece of glass, and a brass mat, the size and shape you desire, put over it, and, by means

"Medallion" oroval. To secure prints by this method, Gihons" Cut-Outs's are used, which consist, first, of a mask of any form, but generally with an oval opening in the centre, which is placed over the negative margin or border during the printing of the figure; then the figure is covered over with a piece corresponding to the oval cut-out, and the border of the print is "flashed" in the sun, more or less according to taste. There should always be a contrast between the figure part and the border, the latter being much the lighter of the two.