298. Like human beings, again, negatives " wear out" from much use. If the film becomes torn, it is easily remedied by the application of a spot of a sharp knife, the oval is cut neatly out, care being taken to preserve the piece cut out. This latter is stuck permanently in the centre of a suitable sized glass. The opening is now laid over the negative, on the varnished side, of course. The print is made as usual. Remove it from the printing-frame, and cover the printed oval thus made with the glass containing the cut out piece, when you may now expose and tint to any desired degree. If you wish to have a fine line border, all you have to do is to shift the piece about one-thirty second to one-sixteenth of an inch, in any direction, whilst laying it over the printed oval, which, by thus covering an edge of the white paper alongside the oval, preserves the paper still white during the tinting. - William Kurtz.

298. No matter how much care is used, it frequently happens, in the printing of a large number of copies from single negatives, that specks of dust or dirt will inadvertently settle between the sensitive paper and the plate. They leave white marks, which do not sufficiently mar the print as to make it worthless, but which become in a measure eyesores to the critical purchaser. They have to be made of the same color or rattier tint of the surrounding parts. A dab of Indian-ink, jabbed upon the of fending spot, does not answer the purpose at all. As much judgment has to be used as is exercised by the lady who trots from store to store upon a shopping excursion, and expends hours in the matching of the hue of a dress pattern or a set of ribbons. If you cannot touch on the spots neatly, you had better allow them to remain. On numberless occasions I have seen prints from what were supposed to be good negatives, that might readily have passed for maps of the heavenly constellations. They were filled with white spots, crescents, and lines. I have frequently asked the privilege of inspecting the plates from which they were made. In most instances the printer had endeavored to conceal small pinholes or light scratches with that very useful paint of my manufacture (Opaque), and instead of having a scarcely discernible dark speck on his paper, caused the appearance of a white blot, somewhat difficult to eradicate. To remove these transparent imperfections up o n the negative, you must possess a sharp eye, a steady hand, a fine brush (Opaque, of course), and a clear comprehension of what you are doing. Almost invariably, when I have washed away the color that had been applied, I have found that at least three times the necessary quantity had been used. - John L. Gihon.

For several years I have made a practice of subjecting my negatives to an operation which has had the effect of preserving them in good condition; thus I have some ten years old, from which several hundreds of prints have been taken, and all of them possessed of the same degree of clearness and beauty. My manner of working is as follows: The negative, finished and well washed (no trace of hyposulphite being allowed to remain in the film), is coated with the under - mentioned solution:

Art In Printing of that indispensable obscnrer of light in the wrong place, Gihon's"Opaque It the varnish becomes generally demoralised, then more elaborate treatment must be resorted to. The varnished film may be removed and the negative revarnished without great risk, but it in a delicate operation and should be managed with the utmost care.


30 cubic centimeters

White of egg, ..................

30 "

Well shaken, and, when subsided, Altered. The negative is allowed to dry spontaneously. Attention must be paid to the proportions of water and albumen employed, for if the latter is in excess, the film of collodion, when dry, has a tendency to peel off, especially if the same has been much worked during development. The albumen having dried, the negative is plunged into a fifteen per cent, solution of silver, the silver bath used for sensitizing being employed for the purpose, if necessary. The plate remains in the silver solution for a period of thirty or forty seconds, - sufficiently long, indeed, to coagulate the albumen, - and is then removed and passed into a bath of concen-treated hyposulphite of soda. It is then again washed, dried and varnished at a gentle heat with a solution of


5 grammes

Alcohol, rectified,..................

100 "

When this coating of varnish has become worn out, it is removed by immersion in a bath of alcohol of the same strength as above, the negative washed, if necessary, and again varnished; it is thus again restored to its pristine beauty. - M. Clement Sans.

If a negative has been printed in the direct sunlight, and has consequently had its varnished surface injured, by placing it on the developing - stand, carefully levelled, and allowing chloroform to remain upon it a few minutes, the injured surface will be dissolved, and it can be revarnished when dry. Observe that a few hours should be allowed to elapse before printing from the newly varnished negative, or it may probably suffer by adhesion to the paper. - Lake Price.

For removing stains from old negatives, dip a tuft of cotton-wool into the hypo fixing-solution, which has been used for the prints the day before. (Strength should be about five ounces of hypo to a pint of water.) Work with gentle friction upon the damaged part, and after a few minutes the negative will be able to discharge its printing functions with all its former power. After the treatment, wash the plate carefully with plenty of water, and dry with blotting - paper first and a soft linen cloth afterwards, finishing with a little gentle heat from the fire. - John L. Gihon.