42. Concealing the art is one of its greatest beauties; and be best can accomplish that who can discover it under all its disguises. I ought, however, to caution the young artist, on this head, not to be too fastidious to conceal what can be obvious only to a small number; for in endeavoring to render his design more intricate, he may destroy character, simplicity, and breadth; qualities which affect and are appreciated by every one. - John Burnet.

43. He must have a settled knowledge of what he is seeking; He must have a quickness of eye, to take advantage of accidental arrangements, and a plan of methodizing his ideas, so as to be able to secure what be acquire, without which it will be impossible to produce a composition upon which he can calculate with any degree of certainty as to its effects or its stability. John Burnet.

44. Before proceeding to take up the various forms of composition which are the most easily demonstrated and most useful in photography, illustrating each method by sketches, permit a few remarks which are applicable to all.

Here is a diagram of the three great varieties of lines which fall more or less into every photographic portrait. It is good practice to reproduce them. by placing your accessories, draperies, and backgrounds into various compositions, and then study them over and over again. The three great classes, then, are as follows:

45. Upright Lines, or lines running upwards, give grandeur and dignity. You will find this demonstrated in architecture, for instance in columns and spires; in the giant trees of the forest; in the lofty mountains; or, what is more suggestive of grandeur than the large massive clouds to be seen at times towering one upon the other in the far west, bathed in the resplendent light of the departing sun? To bring this practically home, examine some of your photographs, and you will find that tall figures, other things being equal, have the most dignity. It is well to remember this when posing, for much can be done in assisting this effect by properly arranging the flowing Hues of the dress, or by the introduction of some object to carry out and extend the line.

46. Horizontal Links tend to repose, and again the reader is asked to turn to nature for proof of this. Look at a fair-weather sky; if there are

Fig. 11.

31 Circles 17

45. For the choice of line, no specific rule can be given. The artist must be guided by the general laws of harmony, which require that the line should be in keeping with the subject. It may be the parabola, the serpentine, or the angle. Harmony also requires that the character chosen should pervade every part of the work. - M. A. Dwight.

46. Allston says: " By a line in composition is meant something very different from the geometrical definition." Originally, it was, no doubt, used as a metaphor; but the needs of art have long since converted this, and many Other words of like application (as tone, etc.), into technical terms. Line, thus, signifies the course, or medium, through which the eye is led from one part of the picture to another. The indication of this course is various and multiform, appertaining equally to shape,to color, and to light and dark; in a word, to whatever attracts and keeps the eye in motion. For the regulation of these lines there is no rule absolute, except that they vary and unite; nor is the last strictly necessary, it being sufficient, clouds, you will find them generally with a horizontal they are large cumulous clouds, you will find an abundance of horizontal lines to give the effect of repose and rest.What is more peaceful in effect than a large tract of level country? The eye is carried by line after line to the distant horizon. Again,the sea, when in repose,iscalm;and calm, level water is always expressiveof peace and quiet; and, when travelling amidst mountain scenery, as has been already stated,suggestive of grandeur, what is more peaceful or symbolic of repose than the clear, placid lake at the mountain base, unless it is the horizontal streak of cloud which is so often to be found resting on the rough breast of some peak?

47. Wavy Ortobtuous Lines indicate motion or unrest Proof of this we find, if we look at the sea driven about and tossed with the wind, the mountain torrent, clouds in motion, a flag fluttering in the breeze, the crowded, bustling thoroughfare. And, supposing many readers to possess,or to some photographs of the great rapids of pleasurable sensation, which, to a cultivated mind, increases (not diminishes) by the investigation of the cause which produces it. For example, a beautiful appearance in nature affects the savage and the philosopher from their sensations merely as men; but a painter, whose life is 6pent in a constant competition with nature in producing the same effects, receives a tenfold gratification in following her through those assemblages which to the world are, as it were, " a fountain sealed and a book shut up." Hence, in art, a beautiful arrangement must be a selection of those forms, lights, and colors that produce a similar result; and the taste of an artist is shown in heightening their effect by the absence of those circumstances which are found by experience to produce the contrary. Did an investigation of the means pursued by the great masters tend to abridge an artist's pleasurable sensations, instead of being the most favored, he would be rendered the most miserable of beings; but the opposite is the case, as by such means he is taught an alphabet that enables him to understand the language of nature. - John Burnet.

Niagara, if they are studied, they will bear testimony to the truth of this remark. These lines become of great service in standing figures of ladies where there is much drees to be disposed of, and also where drapery must be introduced. They break the monotony of straight or unbended lines and are the most beautiful of all when permitted in proper place