48.. Having demonstrated what is meant by composition, a few of its leading forms will now be explained and illustrated; and while this done, it is not to be supposed that it is desirable to compel, as it were, if they so terminate, that the transition from one to another is made naturally, and without effort by the imagination, n<>r can any laws be laid down as to their peculiar character; this mustdepend on the nature of the subject - M. A Dwight.

47. No established rules for posing can be given. It is an art in itself, and can only be acquired by diligent study, careful observation, and profound thought. See that the pose is natural; no matter how graceful and easy it may be, it is such a one as no human being takes naturally, it is simply absurd. - Frank Jewell.

48. A beautiful combination in nature will often appear to evade every rule perfect in every mode of examination. All her varieties emanate from a straight and a

A judicious arrangement to objects possessing these various natural appearance to a picture; nor ought the artist to leave out rashly what he may conceive to be void of beauty. In coloring, harsh tints are admitted to produce harmony in the other colors; and the most picturesque arrangement often depend on the presence of what might otherwise be considered ugly forms. As i have made use of the terms " beautiful and agreeable arrangements." it is proper to give an explanation of the sense in which they areapplied. Bya beautiful arrangement 1 mean a proper adaptation of those principles that arrest a common observer, and give a every picture produced to slavishly conform to any precise rule. But rather, by directing attention to the modes of construction adopted by those whose works evince a full acquaintance with the principles of composition, it is hoped to cultivate the mind and educate the eye of the photographer. He may then, while composing, be as sensitive to an ungraceful line or incongruous accessory as is the skilled musician to a false note.

49. Angular Composition is the form to be considered first. In compositions following this form, the greater part of the lines are directed diagonally, as in the caricature of " The Flight of AEneas," from a Campanian mural painting. True, we have not much of art here, hut we have the strict following of the principle in question. With a rule, enclose the drawing in a square, and then draw lines from the right upper corner to the left lower. and it will be seen how true this is. And yet the lines are not so severely unbending as you would draw them. though directed diagonally, and strictly "in form."

Fig. 12.

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40. The student will do well to observe attitudes assumed in every-day lite, and adapt them to his art. When he sees a beautiful attitude, let him speculate upon the cause of its being beautiful, and he will find that it depends for its effect on its consistency with the rules of composition; and although these rules will not supply him with imagination sufficient to enable him to perpetually invent new arrangements, he will find they aid him very materially in giving expression to his inventions, and will prevent him being extravagant or exaggerated in his arrangements of the form. He should also store his mind with incidents suitable to his sitters, and he may then, perhaps, be able to give leu occupation to the eternal book we see in the hands of photographers almost as often as a roll of paper is represented in the statues of statesmen. - H. P. Robinson.

50. As a further example, a picture is taken from a move modern source,"Mignard's Daughter painted in the seventeenth century, by

Pierre Mignard.Now see how it will instruct youto observe how beautifully in adopting the angular form of pomponition, have so arranged the leading line and points in their picture! at to form a diamond, and examination will serve to show they have done so to good purpose, as groups so arranged havea verypleasing effect upon the eye.The" MasterLambton" requires but little filling in of a line to make it of diamond form. Turn it side ways and we have a pyramidal form, of which method what follows will tell more particularly.

Joined the lines are here. Every one is full of grace, uniting in the most winning manner, part of the pic-ture with the other, and every curve or bend having a corresponding curve or bend in an opposite direction, thus maintaining a perfect balance.Acces-sories and lighting, too, are all made to do their part in the work. This is a study well worth the careful attention of the portrait photographer, for, as a whole, it la a composition which would not be difficult of his imitation, with a bring model, in his own studio.For this reason it has been chosen. It is full of suggestion and beauty, too.


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60. It is universally allowed that Raphael excelled all other painters in a graceful arrangement of drapery, and a natural disposition of folds. By studying the principles of the ancients, he learned to consider the figure as the principal part, and that drapery should be considered as an accessory. That it is intended to cover and not to conceal. That it is employed not from caprice, but from necessity. Consequently, the dress should not be so narrow as to constrain the members, nor so ample as to conceal them, but suitably adapted to the size and attitude of the figure represented. His ample draperies had nouseless folds, and were bent at the articulation The form of the figure indicated the form of the folds, and on the great muscles he formed great masses. When any limb was foreshortenedl in the drawing, he covered it with as many folds as if it were extended, but crowded them in proportion to the foreshortening. By the folds of his draperies, it is easy to determine the attitude of the figure previous to the one in which it appears. For example: whether the arm were extended or reposing immediately before the action in which it is represented. This was an expression he carefully studied on all occasions.When the drapery was to cover the leg or the arm but partially, he made it cut the member obliquely. His folds were of a triangular form. The reason for this is found in nature; for all drapery, after being extended and then falling again under the pressure of the atmosphere, is naturally formed into triangles. His whole practice demonstrates the theory that the movements of the figure cause the peculiar form and position of the folds exhibited in the drapery that covers it. - M. A. Dwight.