249. For silvering the paper, provide a table, somewhat larger than the sheet of paper, covered with velveteen. Upon this the paper is laid, and the albumen surface is briskly rubbed with a bunch of cotton or, better, with a soft pad covered with silk. The pile of the velvet upon which the paper is laid serves to hold it from slipping. The rubbing prevents the silver solution from drying in drops or tears, which frequently occasion great annoyance. I imagined the effect produced by the rubbing might be due to electricity, and this idea suggested silk as a substitute for the cotton. I prefer the silk, but the electrical question remains undetermined. The paper is then rolled up in the form of a scroll, which is held in the left hand and placed upon the solution (previously poured into a pan of suitable size), while the free end is drawn over the surface by the right hand, the unrolling being regulated by the left This manipulation being skilfully performed, the possibility of the formation of bubbles on the paper is precluded. In warm weather, the paper is left in the solution about one minute; in cool weather, two or three minutes. The paper is then lifted slowly from the bath, so that but little of the solution is drawn up by cohesion. Lastly, it is reversed and hung up to dry by the end which was last to leave the bath. Hardly a drop will leave the paper after it is suspended. - W. H.Sherman.
highest. Now drop the left end of the sheet upon the surface of the solution, and by one of the corners carry or float it to the left end of the vessel, following with the other hand, gradually dropping the sheet, and with the fingers tapping gently upon the hack of it until the whole lies upon the solution. Avoid hubbies. Do not allow the edges to become immersed, and if they turn up, breathe upon the sheet, and that trouble will end.
The following is a neat and economical method of treating the silvered sheet when taking it from the solution on which it has been sensitized. Have ready as many sheets of thick blotting-paper as there are sheets of paper to sensitize. In lifting the albumenized paper off the silver solution, draw it uniformly over the edge of the dish, so as to remove as much as possible of the solution adhering to the surface. Lay the sheet on the blotting-paper, and place another sheet of blotting-paper over it to still further absorb the superficial solution. Lay the next sensitized albumenized sheet on this blotting-paper, and so on, alternating blotting-paper and sensitized albumenized paper. The thick blotting-paper quickly takes up the nitrate of silver solution, leaving the sensitized sheet with no free moisture. In this condition it quickly dries without the silver solution gathering in pools or drops. The sheets of blotting-paper can be used many times before they become saturated. They may then be burnt for the silver they contain. To those who have not tried this method, two objections appear obvious - that the prints from such sensitized paper would be weak by having so much free solution removed from the surface, and that the sheets would be dirty. In practice, however, the paper so treated is found to give quite as vigorous, and much more uniform, results as from paper that is lifted direct from the dish and hung up to dry spontaneously. If care be taken with the blotting-sheets, no marks whatever will be produced by the damp contact of the two papers. There are many advantages attached to this mode of working - superior cleanliness, by the absence of the stains of drops of silver solution; less time required in drying off the sensitized sheets; the economy of the silver, for the expense of the blotting-paper is as nothing compared with the perfect method of saving the whole of the silver solution adhering to the sensitized sheets. I am not aware of any drawbacks to this method. I have had it in use for several years. - Jabez Hughes.
"When floating paper, I, as a rule, bring one end of the paper in contact with the silver solution first. Now, after carefully removing all air-bubbles, and allowing the paper to float as long as I deem necessary, I first lift the end of the sheet from it that was the first to come in contact with it. This gives a uniform coating, and assures me that some parts of the paper will not be more brilliant than others, and that the prints next day will be uniform in strength and brilliancy. If one is good, all will be good, and vice versa, provided always that care was used in the printing. Do not rush the paper off of the solution, but raise slowly and evenly, which allows the silver to run off the paper while raising it, so that when it is completely off, there will be only a dropping from it. Now hang the sheet with one corner lower than the other, under which place the silver bottle, in the neck of which is the funnel with filter. "While preparing another sheet of paper, this will have dripped as much as it can, and is now ready to be moved to another place to dry, leaving room for the next sheet. In this way very little silver is lost or wasted; and not only is this the result, but the paper is in better condition - from the fact of its having been through a certain routine the season of the year and the salting of the paper. From twenty see onds upward is right.
250. To remove the sheet from the solution requires some care. Seize it by the left corner nearest you, and slowly raise it until the opposite lelt corner is free from the solution, whin the last should be taken in the right fingers, and then the whole sheet is gently lifted from the dish, al-lowed to drain, drawn over a glass rod at the end of the dish, and then hung Dp to dry. By this means the superfluous silver solution is saved for future use, instead of being allowed to drip on the floor and waste, and the uniform silvering or sensitizing of the sheet is more certainly affected. The movement over the rod should be slow and even, with rather a dragging or pressing against it outwardly, rather than a motion more vertical. Some do not use this glass rod, believing that it abrades the surface of the paper. This can hardly be true, however: neither can it deprive the sheet of any needed silver. If it is used, ears should be taken that no marks are caused by hesitating, in the least, while the sheet is being drawn out and over the rod. The time of floating varies with which results in making it more general in results. The surface of albumenized paper should never come in contact with any hard substance while damp, as it is certain to interrupt the evenness of the surface, and present in the print an unevenness that attracts attention. - I. B. Webster.