260. Keep the paper in a damp, cool place, from twelve to twenty - four hoars before silvering. This applies to every brand of albumen paper. It gives greater ease in silvering-The paper will take the silver better, and will also lessen the tendency to blisters to which the " Brilliant" papers are especially liable. Carefully examine the first sheet you silver each day, as it begins to get surface dry. If it looks as though the surface was greasy, reduce the strength of your silver solution. Dry as quickly as possible. Fume with ammo-nia until the paper prints a rich purple. Ten minutes will probably be sufficient Be sure that, when the paper is once dry after silvering, it does not get damp again until it goes into the washing. In damp weather see that the fuming - box is dry. If damp, light a lamp, and leave it burning in the box for a quarter or half an hour before putting in the paper. - H.C. Bridle.
251. After the sheets are thus silvered or sensitized, they are hung in a closet or drying-box, by means of clothes-clips at the corners, to be thoroughly dried. After this they are fastened to skeleton frames made of wood the size of the sheets, with a spring at each corner, and placed in a fuming-box to be fumed.
252. The operation of fuming is for the purpose of increasing the sensitiveness of the paper, and also the intensity of the prints. It continued according to the density of the negative, varying with circumstances. It is a good plan to hang the sheet with the end upward which leaves the solution last. Thus a more even silvering is secured. If the surface of the paper is horny and hard, "tear drops" will occur. Some prefer the use of blotting-pads for drying the paper If they are used, see to it that they are chemically pure.
This is my drying- room, a is the gas-stove by which the room is heated; b is the paper as fastened to the clips for drying; c is a shelf on which the silver bath-bottles, as well as the collodio-chloride bottles, are placed; d, d, d are plates, each hung upon two nails. C. W. Hearn, in the Practical Printer.
252. I will venture to describe my fuming-box - a little piece of apparatus which I devised several years ago, and is so much of a convenience, it seems to me that others might also find it useful. It consists of a tight box made of match stuff and well put together, and a drawer. The box is fastened up against the wall in the printing - room, in an inverted position, so that the drawer is opened by sliding downwards, and, of course, shut by sliding up. The drawer is the principal thing in the contrivance. It is wide enough to accommodate a sheet of paper, and is some six or eight inches longer than the sheet - say thirty inches long by twenty inches wide and five inches deep. The top end of the drawer is omitted, instead of which two pieces of twine are stretched across, from which, by means of clips, the paper is suspended. The sides of the box extend down two feet below, and serve as guides for the drawer when let down to put in or take out
253.If the paper is not printed as it in fumed, it may be cut into proper sizes and kept in a handy drawer reserved for that pnrpose only. It will change color if exposed to the light, and as a usual thing it will not keep in good condition from day to day. This negative is placed in a printing - frame of suitable size, the film inside. The albutbe paper. A atop is fastened to the wall, upon which the drawer rests when so let down or opened. A spring made of common strap - iron is let into the left guide - piece, in such a position that when the drawer is closed it is held by the spring in its place; a slight pressure with the thumb of the left band allows the drawer to open. A bottle of ammonia is placed on the lower end of the drawer, where it is always at hand for use as occasion requires; and a small glass tumbler, from which the fumes are given off, completes the arrangement. By this device the fumes of ammonia, which are lighter than air, are allowed to remain in the fuming - box when the paper is removed; and in all respects the machine is as convenient as possible. - W. H. Sherman.
The construction of the fuming - box is very simple. Take any common wooden box, large enough for the purpose, and make a door of suitable size for it, which, when shut, will totally exclude all light Make a false bottom in this about six inches from the real one, and perforate it with holes of about the size an extra large gimlet would make. These holes should be exceedingly numerous, and at the centre of the board there should be, if anything, a smaller number of them, because the saucer containing the liquid ammonia is generally placed at the centre of the real bottom of the box.
The sheets could be suspended in this box by having a nipper nailed at each end of a stick of sufficient length, which is fastened at the top of the box, parallel to the bottom of the box. Several of these strips could be placed at about three inches apart, and thus quite a number of sheets could be fumed at some times, during damp weather, the fuming of the paper is attended with unsatisfactory results on account of the great moisture of the paper, which tends toward turning it yellow; but this is generally overcome by pouring a little chloride of lime on the bottom of the box. The time of fuming the paper depends upon the state of the nitate bath, the quality of the negatives, the temperature of the weather, and the brightness of the light. Paper silvered on an acid bath needs much longer fuming than when silvered on an alkaline or neutral one; paper for intense negatives requires less fuming than for weak ones; during the summer, less fuming than during the winter; and on a dark day, less of fuming than on a bright day. - C.W.Hearn, In the Practical Printer.