31. Varnish Caution

Varnish Caution. As gasoline will very easily ig-

nite, it must never be handled near fire or lights of any-kind.

32. Applying The Varnish To The Negative

Applying The Varnish To The Negative. The varnish is applied by holding the negative perfectly level in one hand. With the plate resting on the tips of three fingers and between the ends of the little finger and thumb, pour a sufficient quantity of the varnish on the upper right-hand corner, so that when the negative is slightly tilted the varnish will flow evenly over all portions. By tilting the plate first slightly to the left, you will cover the upper portion evenly; then slightly raise the upper end, so the varnish will descend and flow evenly towards the bottom of the plate. In this way you will obtain an uniform flow of the varnish and produce an even surface. Never tilt the plate back after the varnish has been flowing in one direction - to do so will give you ripples and lines in the varnish. The surplus varnish flowing from the plate may be drained back into the bottle. A large-mouthed bottle should be used for the retouching dope and a small-mouthed bottle for the retouching varnish. Keep both tightly corked.

33. Removing The Retouching

Removing The Retouching. When it is desired to remove the retouching, which is frequently the case - especially with your first experiments where too much lead is applied to produce the desired results, or where the dope applied does not give sufficient tooth, or where, for any reason, you want to work the plate over again and the work applied is to be removed - do so by applying the solvent of any medium you are using. If you are using retouching dope, then drop a few drops of turpentine on the negative and with a tuft of cotton rub over the surface, which will instantly remove all retouching, as well as the dope.

34. The retouching dope may be substituted for the turpentine to erase work done, if so desired. When using the dope for erasing the lead, you also prepare the plate again for retouching. When the turpentine is used for erasing the work done, the surface must be rubbed perfectly dry before again applying the dope.

35. When retouching varnish is used as the retouching medium, the solvent employed in making the varnish maybe used for removing the varnish and retouching from the negative. The solvent used in the formula given herein

Illustration No.1 Faber Pencil Holder and Leads

Illustration No.1 Faber Pencil Holder and Leads.

See Paragraph 36.

for retouching varnish, being gasoline, pure gasoline should be used when it is desired to remove any work where this medium is employed. Where gasoline cannot be had, wood

alcohol may be employed successfully by applying a few drops to the plate and rubbing dry with a tuft of cotton. 36. Pencils. - The principal pencils in use are those made by the A. W. Faber Co., and while pencils suitable for retouching are made protected by cedar wood, similar to the ordinary pencil, yet the loose leads made for the adjustable holders are employed almost exclusively for retouching, as the latter are by far more economical and convenient to use. (See Illustration No. 1). One holder will be all that is necessary, no matter how many different leads you desire to use. The leads are made in various degrees of hardness, costing 50 cents for a box of six leads.

Illustration No. 2 Retouching Desk See Paragraph 38

Illustration No. 2 Retouching Desk See Paragraph 38.

37. The most useful leads, as previously stated, are the HH and HHH. Once in a great while it will be desirable to use a BB lead, which is quite soft, and will be serviceable when building up very transparent shadows, or removing extremely heavy imperfections, spotting negatives, etc. The pencil should be sharpened at a far more tapering point than is generally used in the average writing. The point of the lead should be at least 1/2 inch from the

commencement of the taper, and should be smooth and even.