This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
157. In no field of photographic work is it possible to use apparatus as inexpensive as in the making of pictorial landscapes. It is, however, always advisable before making an exposure to thoroughly understand the various kinds of apparatus that will assist most materially in securing the best results. It is not necessary that the camera should have many attachments, but it is important that the bellows be of sufficient length to accommodate a long focus lens. Such attachments as the rising and falling front and sliding front, have their advantages and will often come into play. The swing-back is also a desirable feature, but not absolutely necessary.
Selecting The Lens. A special lens is not required for landscape work. In fact a single lens cell will answer every purpose, as it is not necessary to have it corrected for the various defects found in the average cheap single lens, which is imperative in the case of architectural photography. In photographing landscape scenes in which there are no moving objects, an exposure of considerable length may be given if required. The single lens can be stopped down sufficiently to secure any desired depth of focus. Bear in mind, however, that artistic effects are secured by a certain amount of diffusion, which is lost if the lens is stopped down to too small an opening.
Focal Length. The lens attached to the average hand camera is really a superior instrument for artistic landscape work, to the more expensive anastigmats. If, however, it is desired to secure a lens especially for landscape photography there are two primary considerations which must be taken into account; focal length and angle of view. The question of focal length presents some difficulties, yet it can be varied at pleasure between indefinite limits. It is better to employ a lens of considerable focal length - one that is twice the length of the greater dimension of the plate will be approximately correct, as it includes an angle of about 35 degrees. Pictures taken with a lens giving a narrow angle, present a perfectly natural appearance, and may be viewed at any distance, but one made with a wide or medium angle lens must be viewed at close range. Even then the foreground is sure to be exaggerated, and perspective lines are so increased that a square becomes oblong and a circle an ellipse. A short focus lens is, of necessity, a wide angle one.
BRIDGE. Study No. 9 - See Page 310 By J. H. Field.
Illustration No. 25
Illustration No. 26
See ParaGraphs No. 164 and 167
This type of instrument gives too great a depth of focus, rendering all planes in the scene equally sharp.