A problem which at sometime confronts the owner of every studio is, how to build a durable water tight sink. Probably a sink lined with sheet lead is the best - but this is expensive. However, any photographer can build a sink which will be inexpensive and an insurance against possible damage suits from the tenants on the floor below. A concrete sink will not only be durable, if properly constructed, but sanitary and proof against leaks as well.

The first thing to do is to have a carpenter build an outside permanent form of boards. The outside dimensions we will assume to be six feet long by three feet wide, in which case the proper outside depth would be about twelve inches. This form or support for the concrete should be built and placed in position in the dark-room or work-room where the sink is to be installed. The inside can be left rough, but the front should, of course, be finished smooth. This form can be supported on gas pipe legs with screw flanges at top and bottom, or wooden legs may be used if more convenient. If installed in center of room the supports must be braced, while if placed against a wall the form may be securely attached to the wall. In the center of the bottom of form and at the back, a two inch hole should be bored, and into this a round wooden plug with a shoulder is fitted as shown in Cut No. 1. This acts as a form for the opening for drain pipe connection. We may as well explain how this connection is made as shown in Cut No. 2.

How To Build A Reinforced Concrete Sink StudioLightMagazine1914 81

Artura Print From An Eastman Portrait Film Negative

By Gerhard Sisters

(Of the Women's Federation)

St. Louis, Mo.

Artura Print From An Eastman Portrait Film Negativ StudioLightMagazine1914 82

Cut No. 1 - Wooden plug in place, concrete poured.

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Cut No. 2-Wooden plug removed and drain pipe connected.

When concrete has thoroughly set the wooden plug is driven out from above. A rubber gasket is then cut to fit around the drain opening on under side. Now fasten a screw flange to under side of wooden framework, the opensing in this being larger than the drain opening in the concrete. Screw the drain pipe through this flange until it presses hard enough against rubber gasket on under side of concrete to make a water tight connection. If pipes ever need replacing, another connection may be made in the same way. We will now consider the wooden plug has been inserted and we are ready to prepare framework for pouring the concrete into the bed of the sink. The next thing to do is to cover the bottom of the form with a fine mesh poultry wire which may be attached to sides of form to hold it just off the bottom. Then cover with a two inch layer of concrete. This should be a rather rich mixture in the proportion of one part Portland cement to two parts of clean sand. Particular care should be exercised to get good sand. The ordinary builder's sand used for foundations and sidewalks will not answer, as any clay or soil would render the cement porous. So when ordering, specify Rock-away sand, which can be obtained in two grades, fine and coarse. The "fine" will be required in this case. Any dealer handling contractors' supplies can furnish such sand, or, if necessary, you can wash the sand yourself by putting it into a tub or barrel, turning the hose into it and stirring with a stick until the water runs clear.

Mix the cement and sand thoroughly before wetting up. After pouring cement into the bottom of the sink, level it over with a piece of straight edged plank, giving a gradual slope toward the waste vent and curving outer edges up to better connect with sides and so avoid sharp corners. It is important to leave the outer edge rough to make a perfect connection with the sides and allow the bottom reinforcing wires to project where connection is to be made with the sides. Allow cement to stand and harden for at least twelve hours, when you will be ready to build the sides. For the sides a temporary inside form will be necessary. The boards for this purpose should be slightly inclined so as to make the sides a little thicker at the base. A narrow piece of poultry wire should also be placed between the inside and the outside forms before pouring the cement, to further reinforce and strengthen the sides. Just here a very convenient way of making a grating for the top of the sink is made possible by nailing little blocks of wood, one by one by two inches, along the upper edge of the inside form used the long way. This will leave notches in the upper inside edges of the concrete in which wooden slats may be placed crosswise of the sink. And if these slats are one inch square, the grating will be one inch below the top of the sink.

Artura Print From An Eastman Portrait Film Negativ StudioLightMagazine1914 84

Cut No. 3 - Cross section of finished sink before drain pipe is connected.

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Cut No. 4 - Top view of sink. Solid lines, outside form - dark portion, concrete - dotted lines, inside form and wooden slats.

This would be much better than the ordinary wooden grating which is always coming apart because of rusting of nails and screws. With the above plan, any or all of the slats can be easily removed at any time to clean underneath. The reinforcing wire in bottom and walls of sink will not only give strength but will prevent cracks from forming.

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Cut No. 5 - Blocks on inside form.

Waterproofing is not necessary with this sink, but an acid-protective paint might be advisable. This paint may be made by dissolving 100 parts (by weight) of Utah Asphalt (Gilsonite) in 250 parts turpentine. At ordinary temperature twenty-four hours will be required for perfect solution. To this should be added five parts of neutral petroleum oil, and the mixture should be applied to the concrete in two coats, allowing twenty-four hours between the application of the first and second coats.