Some workers are of the opinion that it is not possible to reproduce a negative and make it so nearly perfect that prints from the reproduced negative can not be readily detected from those made from the original. But nevertheless this is the fact. We have been fooled on this test repeatedly, even when we have had the original negative in our hands. The fact was that the prints from the reproduced negatives were in many instances better than those from the original.

We do not mean by this that we would suggest reproduction as a means of improving negatives but merely to prove the point that a reproduced negative need not have less quality than the original. There are several very good reasons for reproducing a negative. If it has unusual value this in itself makes the means of reproduction worth while and the means is a good positive. If the negative has value and is on glass a positive is doubly worth while for there is no real satisfactory way of repairing a glass negative once it is broken.

If your glass negatives never break you are the exception to the rule. It has been the writer's experience that the surest way to break a negative is to caution everyone about the place to handle it with care. Auto-suggestion in such a case seems to work backwards. Everyone feels sure he has a fine grip on that piece of glass but sub-consciously he drops it. Of course film overcomes this trouble but usually there are valuable old glass negatives about a studio.

Duplicate negatives are often necessary or desirable when great numbers of prints are to be made, as orders may be handled much more quickly by printing from several negatives. In the portrait studio, however, the duplicate negative or the positive from which duplicate negatives may be made, is most valuable for the insurance it offers against breakage, loss or damage of the original which may be worth hundreds of dollars in duplicate orders.

Where such positives are made we suggest that they be filed away from the originals as a matter of protection so that all of your eggs will not be in one basket. Few of the fires that destroy studios originate in them but if your studio should ever be destroyed and you have positives or duplicates of your most valuable negatives stored at home you will have saved your self a great many dollars.

How To Make A Duplicate Negative StudioLightMagazine1923 38

FROM A SUPER SPEED PORTRAIT FILM NEGATIVE Straight daylight exposure against the light.

By Milton J. Washburn Buffalo, N. Y.

The making of positives from which negatives are to be made is very much a matter of judging quality and this is rather difficult at first because the desired result is printing quality. You are not making a positive that is good to look at but one from which you can print a negative that will have in it just what you have in your original negative.

For this reason we would suggest that the man who has had no previous experience make several tests before he proceeds with the work. For negatives that are any ways near normal make the positive on Commercial Film. This has slightly more than half the speed of Commercial Ortho Film and is most suitable for both the positive and the negative that is printed from it. Only when a negative is extremely flat should a Process Film be used or when extremely contrasty a Commercial Ortho Film.

For a negative of normal density we might suggest that at a distance of 15 feet from a 16 candle power lamp an exposure of six or eight seconds might be somewhere near normal. Make an exposure, develop it in the regular pyro developer and note with normal development whether over or under-exposure is indicated.

The positive should have fairly full exposure. It should be developed to secure all the highlight detail that is shown in the negative and it should have good printing density so that the full gradation scale of the negative will be reproduced. We suggest that several tests be made because if you have slightly underexposed and developed a positive to a fair degree of contrast you will at once be struck with the beauty and brilliancy of the result. Such a positive will not print a good negative, however, because the highlights will lack detail, the shadows will be blocked and the negative made from it will give a print that is entirely too contrasty.

These positives are deceiving because you examine them only by transmitted light and what you see through a positive is much different from what you see in the print which is examined by reflected light. You may see detail through the shadows of a positive, but make a negative from it and a print from the negative and the same shadows in the print may be a mass of solid black, because you do not look through them.

Positives are usually made by contact in a printing frame and care should be used to insure perfect contact. A heavy felt pad is best for this purpose. The same developer you use for negatives should be used both for positives and negatives in the reproducing process.

If the original negative is slightly soft, reproduce it perfectly in the positive and depend upon the developing of the negative you make to secure an increase in contrast.

How To Make A Duplicate Negative StudioLightMagazine1923 40

FROM A SUPER SPEED PORTRAIT FILM NEGATIVE Daylight exposure, no flash used.

By Milton J. Washburn Buffalo, N. Y.

If you wish considerable contrast and the ordinary developer does not give enough, use the contrast developer recommended for Process Film, which will be found in the Film Booklet. This developer contains caustic soda, which is a much stronger accelerator than carbonate, and develops in two or three minutes, giving excellent contrast. If still greater contrast is desired, and this will not often be the case, a Process Film can be substituted for the Commercial.

In reproducing negatives there is a decided advantage when considerable spotting is necessary. The spotting can all be done on the positive and you can see the results of your work much better than when spotting the negative. If it should be that you are not using film for negative making you can readily see what an advantage film offers as insurance against negative breakage. And when you have used film to reproduce your valuable negatives, a further trial will convince you that the superior quality of Portrait Film results will be an advantage in all of your work.