There are two methods of performing this - one being to elevate the toe of the vamp the required amount above the toe of the standard, and then complete the cutting in the usual way, shown in Fig. 126, from AB to FE; the other plan is to cut off from the bottom the desired amount, and to add it to the top of the wing of the vamp, which is illustrated by the principle shown for springing a whole golosh (Fig. 125, B).

Goloshes may be designed upon one of three principles : (a) cut dead to the standard without any spring; f (b) cut to interlock - one wing between the others; (c) with an excessive amount of spring.§ For certain leathers and classes of trade the interlocking golosh possesses economical advantages, but it cannot be adopted for high goloshes, or where an unusual amount of lasting-over allowance is made, and the average height of golosh is desired to be maintained. Whole or joined goloshes for patents should not be cut to interlock, owing to the trouble given in lasting, and the wrinkles or pleats that are to. be found in the finished boot when so interlocked. For such work, cutting dead to the standard is recommended, the space between the wings being utilized for caps, etc. Goloshes are sometimes used, cut upon principle (c), but care should be taken that only such supple leathers as Bordeaux calf be used, and that after they are cut out, they are pulled to remove the excess of spring. Examine Fig. 125, A.

* It must be understood that the standard must not have been sprung consciously or unconsciously in constructing.

Fig. 125 shows such a design; useful for such leathers as patent, or very deep goloshes.

% Fig. 125, A; XYxy shows an interlocked golosh.

§ Fig. 125, A; XYmn shows the outline of golosh on this principle - only to be used with very soft leathers.

How To Spring Vamps 145

The height of a golosh vamp is greater than in a vamped boot, and a difference is also desired for stout work, while lighter work may be lower. About one-fourth of an inch in excess of the usual vamp heights is a good proportion, the same differences being made for "caps" as with vamped work.

Flat-toed, full-waisted lasts, with low insteps and heels, do not lend themselves to the interlocking arrangements. Also it is not possible to obtain with a very full-jointed last the same depth of wing that may be used for a narrow-jointed one. If the lasting-over allowance is large, as in the case of stout outsides, with stout lining, etc., locking goloshes can only be produced to a certain height, viz. one-third of the joint pattern width (see Fig. 124, where BD is one-third of AB). Some lasts require "right and left" goloshes cut to enable the upper to be properly lasted, and the finished article to present a square position.

Method 1

Having determined the height of the vamp N (Fig. 111l), draw NP at right angles to NT. Divide NP into three equal parts, by R, S. Through R draw the line EX parallel to a line passing from P to W. If a joined golosh is required, it may be taken from the whole golosh by making - from the point marked by the line that passes from M, Fig. 111 - a line at 90° with the line RX. This would give an interlocking golosh.

Method 2

Goloshes designed not to interlock should have the vamp-length marked. The height of the back of the golosh may be determined by the counter or stiffening depth, rules for which have been given. The line at right angles to the crease-line of the vamp should be drawn, and a midway distance* between the one-third and one-half of this line, without lasting-over allowance, fixes the other end of the golosh. Cut out to the dead standard. Suitable for patents, etc.

Method 3

Fig. 125 show a women's pattern with an interlocking golosh marked thereon. It is designed by indicating C, the height required. Draw CD at right angles to crease-line CT. Join DE. G is one-third. of CD. GF is parallel to DE. The dotted line CH shows the folded edge of the paper used for cutting the golosh. If the golosh were cut strictly to the markings given, no room would be allowed for the knife to pass between the wings of the pattern when cutting out. Further, the leather has substance, and when placed in position would not reach the desired point made on the paper, therefore arrange the folded edge of the paper to be used, at a suitable distance from CH, before cutting out the golosh pattern. This will give the requisite clearance, etc. Method of cutting and springing.

Fig. 125, A, shows tracings of goloshes cut to 125, and there indicated by the chained-line outline. The fixing of a "pivot point" from which to spring the golosh, so as to retain its correct length and shape of curve, is the first step. This is often done by using C, Fig. 125, and by placing a needle-point through it, and the folded paper beneath it is thus made a point, by means of which the wings are elevated, so that the top edge or range of wings is parallel with the folded edge. This, however, is not a correct way, as it gives a golosh too long, and a curve in front which, when the golosh is fitted, does not represent the one originally designed. Then G is often selected as a pivot-point, and is certainly productive of a better-fitting golosh. The point 3,'* Fig. 125, is also sometimes used. When this point is adopted, a deeper golosh wing may be produced, nearly one-ninth of an inch. The best process is to take the standard and lay it upon the folded edge of the paper to be used for cutting the golosh, putting C and T (Fig. 125) level with YXm (Fig. 125, A). Trace while in this position, from T to D, and C to 3 (Fig. 125). Place the needle point, or tip of the finger on G, and raise the wing until GF is parallel to CH, the folded edge. Mark from centre of front curve to 3, and thence to F. Return the standard to the first position and use 4 (Fig. 125) as a second pivot, raising the wing until F on the standard coincides with F on the golosh tracing. Trace bottom and back, and the golosh will be as YXxy (Fig. 125, A). Proceed for excessive spring in a similar manner, and a tracing as YXmn (Fig. 125, A) will be obtained. Seaming, stretching, etc., allowances will now be made, and the golosh cut out. See also Fig. 124.

* This would be correctly expressed by five-twelfths of the joint-line minus lasting-over allowance.

A golosh vamp is illustrated in Fig. 125, B, the dotted one showing the vamp cut dead, the other marked vamp, cut with spring, using S as pivot. It should be noted that the length round edge has been increased by the amount from V to P, which will be "foul" in lasting.

The effect of springing the golosh is to tighten the top, and to lengthen the bottom edges. The seam at the back of a golosh may be obviated by cutting it as shown in Fig. 126, G.

Other Parts of Standards are shown in Fig. 126. The wing, circular vamp, square vamp, and bach golosh need no further comment. The whole-cut shoe is a type of a principle that is applicable to several designs (such as canvas, athletic, insertion shoes, etc.), and is here given to represent, by Kmno, a turned-in front whole-cut shoe, fastened by a fancy-cut inserted strap. After the line wO has been drawn, the crease-line wKz should be made. From this line a distance equal to the amount required for turning-in is marked (indicated by arrow). The curve Nmk is made, crossing the line from Ow at a proportion of one-third from the top edge. If canvas, etc., requiring an instep-piece, the curve may touch the crease-line Kz, the instep-piece or facing having a suitable overlay. Not much variety is usually made in the shape of the tops of standards, the volute (Figs. 117, 114) being the rule. Figs. 110, 125, 126 P, show a variety that may be adopted. The top one (Fig. 126, P) is of geometrical construction, and is given to illustrate what may be done in this respect.

* This point is found by taking from G the distance GC.