A forme may be used for this method, or the measurements taken direct from the last. Fig. 121 is an illustration of a man's shoe. Draw a base-line, and provide for the height of the heel in the usual manner. If a forme be used, trace its outline, Abcd. From A measure the height of the shoe required at the back. This may be taken from the rules mentioned in "System 1," or the rule of making the height of the back equal to the joint-measure of the pattern, i.e. AB to equal VQ. One-quarter of the last-length is sometimes used to regulate the height of back. Join BD and make DX equal to DA, less one shoe size (1/3- in.). Divide XD into three equal parts at 1 and 2. Through 1 make a line perpendicular to DX, as VQ. Where this transverse line cuts the front of the forme gives the vamp height, Y. Through 2 make a line from A to S. Draw ST at right angles to XD, and, if a low shoe with short vamp is required, the front of shoe and end of wing of the vamp will be determined. In the illustration a shoe higher than this is shown, and from S to E, a distance of § in. is made. Join R2. Add lasting-over allowance suitable. H is found by taking 1/3 of VY. Draw HN parallel to DX, and where it crosses the line that passes from Y to W will locate where the curve of the vamp may pass. Complete the outline as Fig. 121.

Fig. 121.

Shoe standards should not be trimmed, for any reasons, at the top of the back of the quarter - sometimes done mistakenly for draft - as N, Fig. 122. Neither take off an amount such as R from the bottom, and leave on an equal amount, T, at the top (Fig. 122). In the former case the edge of the quarter only would have a binding tendency, and the shoe back is thereby rendered liable to injury in the withdrawal of last after the shoe is completed. The second case, of cutting off the bottom, would make the long-heel measure of the pattern smaller, and does not therefore add to the correct fitting properties of the shoe. A serious error, often committed with the idea of making the shoe grip well, is to cut off 1/8 in. from the instep, A, Fig. 122, adding the same amount in the waist, X, so as to keep the instep measure of the pattern the same. This will shorten the long-heel measure, AC, and will also cause the shoe to be tight in lasting from A to B. If the desire be to "draft" the shoe standard, it should be drafted on the same principle shown for a boot standard, p. 158.

Fig. 122.