Same - Voluntary Payment

If a mere claim is made upon a person without any legal proceeding, and he pays it with full knowledge of all the circumstances of the claim, and without any compulsion or necessity, the payment is regarded as voluntary, and cannot be recovered back, though the claim was unfounded, and might have been successfully resisted.57 It seems that it was at one time held that money voluntarily paid could be recovered back if the party receiving it was not entitled to it; 58 but it is now virtually settled "that a party may in equity and good conscience continue to hold money voluntarily paid to him under no mistake of fact, and without fraud upon his part." 59

54 Ante, p. 299. It must be remembered that it is unlawful to compound a felony, and that money paid to stifle a criminal prosecution cannot be recovered, ante, p. 366; Haynes v. Rudd, 102 N. Y. 372, 7 N. E, 287, 55 Am. Rep. 815; Gotwalt v. Neal, 25 Md. 434; Dixon v. Olmstead, 9 Vt. 310, 31 Am. Dec. 629; unless the circumstances were such that the parties cannot be regarded as being in pari delicto; Duval v. Wellman, 124 N. Y. 156, 26 N. E. 343; ante, p. 428. See "Contracts," Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 95; Cent. Dig. §§ 431-440; "Payment," Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 87; Cent. Dig. §§ 283-287.

55 Ante, p. -----; Hills v. Street, 5 Bing. 37; Astley v. Reynolds, 2 Strange,

915; Chandler v. Sanger, 114 Mass. 364, 19 Am. Rep. 367; Cobb v. Charter, 32 Conn. 358, 87 Am. Dec. 178; Preston v. City of Boston, 12 Pick. (Mass.) 7; Parcher v. Marathon Co., 52 Wis. 388, 9 N. W. 23, 38 Am. Rep. 745; Robertson v. Frank Bros. Co., 132 U. S. 17, 10 Sup. Ct. 5. 33 L. Ed. 236; Briggs v. Boyd, 56 N. Y. 289; Joannin v. Ogilvie, 49 Minn. 564, 52 N. W. 217, 16 L. R. A. 376, 32 Am. St. Rep. 581. Recovery of money exacted by carrier. Baldwin v. Steamship Co., 74 N. Y. 125, 30 Am. Rep. 277; Peters v. Railroad Co., 42 Ohio St. 275, 51 Am. Rep. 814; McGregor v. Railway Co., 35 N. J. Law, 89. See "Contracts," Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 95; Cent. Dig. §§ 431-440.

56 Leake, Cont. 52, and authorities there collected; Carew v. Rutherford, 106 Mass. 1, 8 Am. Rep. 287; Bulow v. Goddard, 1 Nott & McC. (S. C.) 45, 9 Am. Dec. 663; Westlake & Button v. City of St. Louis, 77 Mo. 47, 46 Am. Rep. 4; Lehigh Coal & Nav. Co. v. Brown, 100 Pa. 338; Swift & Co. v. U. S., Ill U. S. 22, 4 Sup. Ct. 244, 28 L. Ed. 341; Regan v. Baldwin, 126 Mass. 485, 30 Am. Rep. 689. Mere threat of suit is not compulsion so as to render a payment to prevent suit involuntary. Emmons v. Scudder, 115 Mass. 367; Await v. Association, 34 Md. 435. See "Payment;' Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 87; Cent. Dig.U 283-287.

57 Leake, Cont 56; Spragg v. Hammond, 2 Brod. & B. 59; Denby v. Moore, 1 Barn. & Ald. 123; Morris v. Tarin, 1 Dall. 147, 1 L. Ed. 76, 1 Am. Dec. 233; Hall v. Shultz, 4 Johns. (N. Y.) 240, 4 Am. Dec. 270; Await v. Association. 34 Md. 435; Lemans v. Wiley, 92 Ind. 436. See "Payment," Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 82; Cent. Dig. §§ 254,-206.

58 Moses v. Macferlan. 1 W. Bl. 219. See "Payment," Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 82; Cent. Dig. §§ 254-266.