In some states, statutes have been enacted declaring that all written instruments shall be presumptive evidence of a consideration, rebuttable, however, by showing that there was in fact no consideration, thereby putting all simple contracts in writing, to this extent, on a level with negotiable instruments.31 The statutory changes in the law in respect to instruments under seal have already been referred to.32

24 Norton, Bills & N. (3d Ed.) 270. 25 Id. 276.

26 Anson, Contr. (8th Ed.) 76, S3. See, also, Wilkinson v. Coverdale, 1 Esp. 75; Thome v. Deas, 4 Johns. (N. Y.) 84; Walker v. Smith, 1 Wash. C. C. 152, Fed. Cas. No. 17086; Williams v. Higgins, 30 Md. 404; Passano v. Acosta, 4 La. 26, 23 Am. Dec. 470; Spencer v. Towles, 18 Mich. 9; Isham v. Tost, 141 N. Y. 100, 35 N. E. 10S4, 23 L. R. A. 90, 38 Am. St. Rep. 766. See "Contracts," Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 61; Cent. Dig. §§ 252, 253.

27 Coggs v. Bernard, 2 Ld. R. 909; Whitehead v. Greetham, 2 Bing. 464. See "Contracts," Dec. Dig. (Keg-No.) § 62; Cent. Dig. §§ 260-212.

28 Hammond v. Hussey, 51 N. H. 40, 12 Am. Rep. 41. See "Contracts," Dec. Dig. (Key-No.) § 54; Cent. Dig. §§ 238-255, 291-315.

29 Anson, Contr. (8th Ed.) 85.

30 "Gratuitous Undertakings," by Joseph H. Beale, Jr., 5 Harv. L. R. 222.