112. Ratification renders the contract absolutely binding ab initio.
114. Third parties, therefore, acquire no rights under an avoided contract.
The effect of a ratification, whether it is in express words or implied from conduct is to render the contract binding ab initio.78 The new promise is not a new contract, but simply a ratification of the original contract; and a suit if brought must be on the original contract, and not on the new promise. The ratification cannot afterwards be retracted and the contract disaffirmed.79