Whatever may be the answer to these questions, the American jurisdictions are few which do not allow the creditor a direct action at law against the promisor,27 Connecti-

27 The following are cases where an action at law or direct action was allowed against one who promised to pay the debt of the promisee to the plaintiff. Cases of assumption of mortgagee are not included. Such cases are separately collected, infra, Sec. 383.

Alabama. Huckabee v. May, 14 Ala. 263; Hoyt v. Murphy, 18 Ala. 316; Mason v. Hall, 30 Ala. 599; Henry v. Murphy, 54 Ala. 246; Young p. Hawkins, 74 Ala. 370; Dimmick v. Register, 92 Ala. 458, 9 So. 79; North Ala. Development Co. p. Short, 101 Ala. 333, 13 So. 385; Potts p. First Nat. Bank, 102 Ala, 286, 14 So, 663; Mackintosh v. Stewart, 181 Ala. 328, 61 So. 956.

Alaska. Fish v. First Nat. Bank, 157 Fed. 87, 84 C. C. A. 502.

Arkansas. Chamblee v. McKenaie, 31 Ark. 155; Talbot p. Wilkins, 31 Ark. 411; Hecht p. Caughron, 46 Ark. 132; Ringo p. Wing, 49 Ark. 457, 464, 5 8. W. 787; Benjamin v. Birmingham, 50 Ark. 433, 8 S. W. 183; Spear Min. Co. v. Shinn, 93 Ark. 346, 124 S. W. 1045; National Trust & Credit Co. p. Polk, 123 Ark. 24,183 S. W. 195; Crig-ler v. Sloes, 124 Ark. 599, 186 S. W. 85. But see contra Hicks v. Wyatt, 23 Ark. 55, and conf. Thomas Mfg. Co. v. Prather, 65 Ark. 27, 44 S. W. 218.

California. Lewis v. Covillaud, 21 Cal. 189; Morgan v. Overman Co., 37 Cal. 534; Malone p. Crescent Co., 77 Cal. 38, 18 Pac. 858; Smith p. Los Angeles, etc., Ry. Co., 98 Cal. 210, 33 Pac. 53; Alvord v. Spring Valley Gold Co., 106 Cal. 547, 40 Pac. 27; Whitney v American Ins. Co., 127 Cal. 464. 59

Pac 897 (overruling McLaren d. Hutchinson, 18 Cal. 80, contra); J. F. Hall Martin Co. v. Hughes, 18 Cal App. 513, 123 Pac. 617; Sherwood v. Gill (Cal. App.), 173 Pac. 171, cf. Wilson v. Shea, 29 Cal. App. 788, 157 Pac. 543.

Colorado. Lehow v. Simonton, 3 Col. 346; Green p. Morrison, 6 Col. 18; Starbud v. Cranston, 24 Col. 20,

48 Pac. 652; Wilson v. Lunt, 11 Col App. 56, 52 Pac. 296; Bureau p. Bogart,

49 Colo. 410, 113 Pac. 516. Florida. Hunter v. Wilson, 21 Fla.

250; Wright v. Terry, 23 Fla. 160, 2 So. 6.

Illinois. Eddy v. Roberts, 17 111. 505; Brown v. Strait, 19 111. 88; Bris-tow p. Lane, 21 111. 194; Rabbennann p. Wiskamp, 54 111. 179; Wilson v. Bevans, 58 111. 232; Beasley p. Webster, 64 HI. 458; Steele p. Clark, 77 111. 471; Snell p. Ives, 85 11l. 279; Shober Co. p. Kerting, 107 111. 344; Schmidt p. Glade, 126 111. 485, 18 N. E. 762; Cobb v. Heron, 78 111. App. 654, 180 111. 49, 54 N. E, 189; Hartman p. Fis-torius, 248 111. 568, .94 N. E. 131; Mathers v. Carter, 7 111. App. 225; Struble v. Hake, 14 111. App. 546; Boats v. Nixon, 26 111. App. 517; Williamson-Stewart Co. v. Seaman, 29 111. App. 68; McCaaland v. Doorley, 47 111. App. 613; Rothennd v. Bell A Zoller Co., 79 111. App. 667; Ess v. Cahill, 86 111. App. 661; American Splane Co. v. Barber, 91 111. App. 369; Hartman v. Six, 155 111. App. 202; Sabo v. Nimett, 178 111. App. 469; Stein p. Deutsch, 178 11l. App. 615.

Indiana. Cross v. Truesdale, 28

Ind. 44; Davis v. Calloway, 30 led. 112, 95 Am. Deo. 671; Haggerty v. Johnston, 46 Ind. 41; Campbell v. Patterson, 68 Ind. 66; Loeb v. Weis, 64 Ind. 286; South Side Planing Mill Assoc, v. Cutler, etc., Co., 64 Ind. 660; Rhodes v. Matthews, 67 Ind. 131; Fisher v. Wilmoth, 68 Ind. 449; Clod-felter v. Hulett, 72 Ind. 137; Medaker v. Richardson, 72 Ind. 323; Hendricks v. Frank, 86 Ind. 278; Harrison v. Wright, 100 Ind. 516, 633, 50 Am. Rep. 805; Warren v. Farmer, 100 Ind. 503; Wolke v. Fleming, 103 Ind. 105, 2 N. E. 325, 53 Am. Rep. 495; Redel-sheimer v. Miller, 107 Ind. 485, 8 N. E. 447; Leake v. Ball, 116 Ind. 214, 17 N. E. 918; Boruff v. Hudson, 138 Ind. 280, 37 N. E. 786; Snider v. Greer-Wilkinson Co., 51 Ind. App. 348, 96 N. E. 960. See also Reed v. Adams etc. Works, 57 Ind. App. 269, 106 N. E. 882. The early Indiana cases before the enactment of the code allowed relief only in equity. Salmon v. Brown, 6 Blackf. 347; Farlow v. Kemp, 7 Blackf. 644; Britsell v. Fryberger, 2 Ind. 176; Conklin v. Smith, 7 Ind. 107, 109, 63 Am. Dee. 416; Bird v. Lanius, 7 Ind. 615, 618.

Iowa. Johnson v. Enapp, 36 la. 616; Blair Co. v. Walker, 39 Ia. 406; Gilbert v. Sanderson, 66 Ia. 349, 9 N. W. 293, 41 Am. Rep. 103; Poole v. Hmtrager, 60 Ia. 180, 14 N. W. 223; Clinton Nat. Bank v. Studemann, 74 Ia. 104, 37 N. W. 113; Knott v. Dubuque, etc., Ry. Co., 84 Ia. 462, 51 N. W. 57; First Nat. Bank of Pipestone v. Rowley, 92 Ia, 530, 61 N. W. 196; Hawley v. Exchange Bank, 97 Ia. 187, 66 N. W. 152; Weiser v. Roes, 150 Ia. 353, 130 N. W. 387.

Kansas. Harrison v. Simpson, 17 Kan. 508; Kansas Pac. Ry. Co. v. Hopkins, 18 Kan. 494; Floyd v. Ort, 20 Kan. 162; Alliance Mut. L. Ass. Soc. v. Welch, 26 Kan. 632, 641; Brenner d. Luth, 28 Kan. 681; West v. W. U. Tel. Co., 39 Kan. 93,17 Pac. 807, 7

Am. St. Rep. 630; Manufacturing Co. v. Burrows, 40 Kan. 361, 19 Pac. 809; Mumper v. Kelley, 43 Kan. 256, 23 Pac. 668; Howell v. Hough, 46 Kan. 162, 26 Pac. 436; Hardesty v. Cox, 63 Kan. 618, 36 Pac. 98S; Ballard v. Home Nat. Bank, 91 Kan. 91, 136 Pac. 936, L. R. A. 1916 C. 161; Staley v. Weston, 92 Kan. 317, 140 Pac. 878; Saylors v. State Bank, 99 Kan. 615, 163 Pac. 454; Emereon-Brantingharo Co. v. Lyons, 102 Kans. 733, 172 Pac. 513.

Kentucky. Garvin v. Mobley, 1 Bush, 48; Dodge's Adm. v. Moss, 82 Ky. 441. But see Hall v. Afford, 105 Ky. 664, 49 S. W. Rep. 444; Matheny v. Chester, 141 Ky. 790, 133 S. W. 764; First Nat. Bank v. Doherty, 166 Ky. 381, 161 S. W. 211; Weber-Wolters Dry Goods Co. v. Scott, 172 Ky. 280, 189 S. W. 223; Caldwell v. Ryan, 173 Ky. 233, 190 S. W. 1078.

Louisiana. Mayor v. Bailey, 5 Mart. 321; Marigny v. Remy, 3 Mart. (N. S.) 607, 16 Am. Dee. 172; Cucullu v. Walker, 16 La. Ann. 198; Watson v. Feibel, 139 La. 375,71 So. 585; People's Bank v. Shreveport Ice etc. Co., 142 La. 802, 77 So. 636 (after acceptance by the creditor). See also Civil Code, Arts. 1884, 1896.