To constitute fraud the representation must be material.1 What representations are material is a question of law;2 and it is usually held that these are all representations which substantially affect the extent of the liability assumed, the value and qualities of the subject, or otherwise tend to induce the party to whom they are made, to enter into the contract.3 A representation concerning land is material if it affects the value of the land for the purpose for which it is sold.4

24 Insurance Company v. Mclntire, 99 la. 50, 68 N. W. 505.

25 Mayo v. Latham, 159 Mich. 136, 123 N. W. 561.

1 United States. Marshall v. Hubbard, 117 U. S. 415, 29 L. ed. 919; Farnsworth v. Duffner, 142 U. S. 43, 35 L. ed. 931; Bry Block Mercantile Co. v. Columbia Portrait Co., 219 Fed. 710, 135 C. C. A. 382.

Alabama. Crooker. v. White, 162 Ala. 476, 50 So. 227.

California. Colton v. Stanford, 82 Cal. 351, 16 Am. St. Rep. 137, 23 Ac. 16.

Colorado. Jones v. Bradley, 8 Colo. App. 178, 45 Ac. 229.

Delaware. Monad Engineering Co. v. Stewart, 25 Del. 35, 78 Atl. 598.

Illinois. Young v. Young, 113 111. 430; Fuchs & Lang Mfg. Co. v. Kit-tredge, 242 111. 88, 89 N. E. 723; Van Gundy v. Steele, 261 111. 206, 103 N. E. 754; John V. Farwell Co. v. Linn, 59 111. App. 245.

Iowa. Armstrong v. Breen, 101 la. 9, 69 N. W. 1125; Lantz v. Ryman, 102 la. 348, 71 N. W. 212; Roe v. National Life Insurance Ass'n, 137 la. 696, 115 N. W. 500.

Kansas. Stevens v. Allen, 51 Kan. 144, 32 Ac. 922.

Kentucky. Shackelford v. Hendley, 8 Ky. (1 A. K. Mar.) 496, 10 Am. Dec. 753.

Louisiana. Goff v. Mutual Life Ins. Co., 131 La. 98, 59 So. 28.

Maine. Palmer v. Bell, 85 Me. 352, 27 Atl. 250.

Montana. Como Orchard Land Co. v. Markham, 54 Mont. 438, 171 Ac. 274.

Nebraska. Gerner v. Yates, 61 Neb. 100; 84 N. W. 596; Jakway v. Proud-fit, 76 Neb. 62, 109 N. W. 388; Realty Investment Co. v. Shafer, 91 Neb. 798, 137 N. W. 873.

Pennsylvania. Williams v. Kerr, 152 Pa. St. 560, 25 Atl. 618; Brown v. Dob-son, 198 Pa. St. 487, 48 Atl. 415.

Washington. Miller v. Commercial Union Assurance Co., 69 Wash. 529, 125 Ac. 782.

West Virginia. Cleavenger v. Sturm, 59 W. Va. 658, 53 S. E. 593.

2 Caswell v. Hunton, 87 Me. 277, 32 Atl. 899; Greenleaf v. Gerald, 94 Me. 91, 80 Am. St. Rep. 377, 50 L. R. A. 542, 46 Atl. 799; Mach Mfg. Co. v. Donovan, 86 N. J. L. 327, 91 Atl. 310.