14 Wallace v. Figone, 107 Mo. App. 362, 81 6. W. 492.

15 Kaplan v. Whitworth, 116 La. Ann. 337, 40 So. 723.

16 Strong & Trowbridge Co. v. Baars, 60 Fla. 253, 54 So. 92.

17 Mayer v. McCreery, 119 N. Y. 434, 23 N. E. 1045.

18 Franck v. McGilvray, 144 Mich. 318, 107 N. W. 886.

19 United States. Joy v. St. Louis, 138 U. S. 1, 34 L. ed. 843.

Alabama. Howison v. Bartlett, 141 Ala. 593, 37 So. 590; Howison v. Bartlett, 147 Ala. 408, 40 So. 757.

Iowa. Iowa-Minnesota Land Co. v. Conner, 136 la. 674, 112 N. W. 820.

Kentucky. Slade v. Lexington, 141 Ky. 214, 32 L. R. A. (N.S.) 201, 132 S. W. 404; Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. v. Herringer, 158 Ky. 267, 164 S. W. 948.

Wisconsin. Chudnow v. Ketter, 161 Wis. 432, 154 N. W. 699.

20 Slade v. Lexington, 141 Ky. 214, 32 L. R. A. (N.S.) 201, 132 S. W. 404. [The question arose in an action by a taxpayer to enjoin the city from renewing such contract.]

Contra: Livingston Waterworks v. Livingston, 53 Mont. 1, L. R. A. 1917D, 1074, 162 Ac. 381.

21 Joy v. St. Louis, 138 U. S. 1, 34 L. ed. 843.

22 Chesapeake & Ohio By. Co. v. Her-ringer, 158 Ky. 267, 164 S. W. 048.

23 Chudnow v. Ketter, 161 Wis. 432, 154 N. W. 699.

24 Howison v. Bartlett, 141 Ala. 593,

37 So. 590: Howiaon v. Bartlett, 147 Ala. 408, 40 So. 757.

25 Iowa-Minnesota Land Co. v. Conner, 136 Ia. 674, 112 N. W. 820.

26 Joy v. St. Louis, 138 U. S. 1, 34 L. ed. 843; Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. v. Herringer, 158 Ky. 267, 164 S. W. 948.

27 Joy v. St. Louis, 138 U. S. 1, 34 L. ed. 843; Slade v. Lexington. 141 Ky. 214. 32 L. R. A. (N.S.) 201. 132 S. W. 404; Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. v. Herringer, 158 Ky. 267, 164 S. W. 948.

28.Toy v. 8t. Louis, 138 U. R. 1, 34 L. ed. 843; Union Pacific Ry. v. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 163 U. S. 564, 41 L. ed. 282.

29 Howison v. Bartlett, 141 Ala. 503, 37 So. 590, 147 Ala. 408. 40 So. 757.

30 Towa-Minncaota Land Co. v. Conner, 136 la. 674. 112 N. W. 820; Chudnow v. Ketter, 161 Wis. 432. 154 N. W. 600.

31 United Fruit Co. v. Louisiana Petroleum Co., 115 La. 181, 38 So. 958.