7 Young v. Borzone, 26 Wash. 4, 23, 66 Pac. 135, 421.

1 United States. Joy v. St. Louis, 138 U. S. 1, 34 L. ed. 843.

Alabama. Prichard v. Miller, 86 Ala. 500, 5 So. 784.

California. Flinn v. Mowry, 131 Cal. 481, 63 Pac. 724 [modified, 63 Pac 10061; Meyer v. Weber, 133 Cal. 681, 65 Pac. 1110; Getz v. Federal Salt Co., 147 Cal. 115, 100 Am. St. Rep. 114, 81 Pac 416.

Colorado. Weston v. Estey, 22 Colo. 334, 45 Pac. 367; Gibbs v. Wallace, 58 Colo. 364, 147 Pac. 686.

Florida. Howard v. Ry., 24 Fla. 560, 5 So. 356.

Idaho. Hunt v. Capital State Bank, 12 Ida. 588, 87 Pac. 1129.

Illinois. Hunter v. Clarke, 184 111. 158, 75 Am. St. Rep. 160, 56 N. E. 297 [affirming, 83 111. App. 100]; Chicago, etc., Bank v. Trust Co., 190 111. 404, 83 Am. St. Rep. 138, 60 N. E. 686 [affirming, 92 111. App. 366].

Kansas. Phelps-Bigelow Windmill Co. v. Piercy, 41 Kan. 763, 21 Pac. 793; Wichita University v. Schweiter, 50 Kan. 672, 32 Pac. 352; Kurt V. Lanyon, 72 Kan. 60, 82 Pac. 459.

Kentucky. Smith v. Theobald, 86 Ky. 141, 5 S. W. 394; Shuttleworth v. Development Co. (Ky.), 60 S. W. 534; Forman v. Mutual Life Insurance Co.,

173 Ky. 547, L. R. A. 1918F, 330, 191 S. W. 279.

Massachusetts. Makepeace v. College, 27 Mass. (10 Pick.) 298; Washburn, etc., Mfg. Co. v. Salisbury, 152 Mass. 346, 25 N. E. 724.

Michigan. Eberts v. Selover, 44 Mich. 519, 38 Am. Rep. 278, 7 N. W. 225; Sutton v. Beck with, 68 Mich. 303, 13 Am. St. Rep. 344, 36 N. W. 79; McNamara v. Gargett, 68 Mich, 454, 13 Am. St. Rep. 355, 36 N. W. 218; Cutler v. Spens, 191 Mich. 603, 158 N. W. 224.

Minnesota. My rick v. Purcell, 95 Minn. 133, 103 N. W. 902.

Mississippi. Floyd v. Arky, 89 Miss. 162, 42 So. 569..

Missouri. Gwin v. Waggoner, 98 Mo. 315, 11 S. W. 227; Jennings v. Todd, 118 Mo. 296, 40 Am. St. Rep. 373, 24 S. W. 148; National Bank v. Flanagan Mills & Elevator Co., 268 Mo. 547, 188 S. W. 117.

Nebraska. Nebraska Hardware Co. v. Humphrey Hardware Co., 81 Neb. 693, 116 N. W. 659.

New York. Hills v. Millei 3 Paige (N. Y.) 254, 24 Am. Dec. 218; Mott v. Richtmeyer, 57 N. Y. 49; Palmer v. Palmer, 150 N. Y. 139. 55 Am. St. Rep. 653, 44 N. E. 966.

Oklahoma. Brake v. Blain, 49 Okla. 486, 153 Pac. 158.

Oregon. Bradtfeldt v. Cooke, 27 Or. 194, 50 Am. St. Rep. 701, 40 Pac. 1.

Pennsylvania. Title Guaranty & Surety Co. v. Lippincott, 252 Pa. St. 112, 97 Atl. 201.

South Dakota. Norbeck & Nicholson Co. v. Nielsen, 39 S. D. 410, 164 N. W. 1033.

Texas. Dallas National Bank v. Davis, 78 Tex. 362, 14 S. W. 706.

Utah. Sterling v. Head Camp, Pacific Jurisdiction, Woodmen of the World, 28 Utah 526, 80 Pac. 1110.

West Virginia. Rhoades v. R. R., 49 W. Va. 494, 87 Am. St. Rep. 826, 55 L. R. A. 170, 39 S. E. 209; Smith v. Board of Education, 76 W. Va. 239, 85 S. E. 513.

Wisconsin. Hannig v. Mueller, 82 Wis. 235, 52 N. W. 98; Security Trust & Life Ins. Co. v. Ellsworth, 129 Wis. 349, 109 N. \V. 125.

See, however, Luellen v. New York Life Insurance Co., 201 Mich. 512, L. R. A. 1918F, 340, 167 N. W. 950.

If an indemnity bond is given against liability on an official bond, the official bond is incorporated in the indemnity bond. Title Guaranty & Surety Co. v. Lippincott, 252 Pa. St. 112, 97 Atl. 201.

2 Weber v. Rothchild, 15 Or. 385, 3 Am. St. Rep. 162, 15 Pac 650.

3 Nebraska Hardware Co. v. Humphrey Hardware Co., 81 Neb. 693, 116 N. W. 659.

4 Beach's Appeal. 58 Conn. 464, 20 Atl. 475; Seieroe v. Bank, 50 Neb. 612, 70 N. W. 220.

5 Solomon Solar Salt Co. v. Barber, 58 Kan. 419, 49 Pac. 524.

6 Western Union Telegraph Co. v. Louisville & N. R. Co., 238 Fed. 26, 151 C. C. A. 102 [reversing decree, Western Union Telegraph Co. v. Louisville & N. R. Co., 229 Fed. 234].

7 Clark v. Paddock, 24 Ida. 142, 46 L. R. A. (N.S.) 475, 132 Pac 795; Bartels v. Davis, 34 Mont. 285. 85 Pac. 1027; Cons-terdine v. Moore, 65 Neb. 291, 101 Am. St. Rep. 620, 96 N. W. 1021; Kendall v. Selby, 66 Neb. 60, 103 Am. St. Rep. 697, 92 N. W. 178.

8 Bradtfeldt v. Cooke, 27 Or. 194, 50 Am. St. Rep. 701, 40 Pac. 1.

9 Interstate, etc., Association v. Knapp, 20 Wash. 225, 55 Pac. 48 [rehearing denied, 20 Wash. 230, 55 Pac. 931].

10Stapleton v. Brannon, 102 Wis. 26, 78 N. W. 181.

11 Edling v. Bradford, 30 Neb. 593, 46 N. W. 836.

12 Security Trust & Life Ins. Co. v. Ellsworth, 129 Wis. 349, 109 N. W. 125.

13Coughran v. Bigelow, 9 Utah 260, 34 Pac. 51.

14 St. Paul, etc., Ry. v. Depot Co., 44 Minn. 325, 46 N. W. 566.

15 Clark v. Needham, 125 Mich. 84, 84 Am. St. Rep. 559, 51 L. R. A. 785, 83 X. W. 1027. (To show that the lease was intended to create a monopoly. See Sec. 802 et seq.) Floyd v. Arky, 89 Miss. 162, 42 So. 569.

16Copeland v. Sinners, 138 Ind. 219, 35 X. E. 514 [rehearing denied, 138 Ind. 226, 37 N. E. 971].

17 Getz v. Federal Salt Co., 147 Cal. 115, 109 Am. St. Rep. 114, 81 Pac. 416 (for the purpose of showing that the transaction was intended to create a monopoly).

18Chute v. Washburn, 44 Minn. 312, 46 N. W. 555.

19 Clark v. Paddock, 24 Ida. 142, 46 L. R. A. (N.S.) 475. 132 Pac. 795.

20dark v. Paddock. 24 Ida. 142, 46 L. R. A. (N.S.) 475, 132 Pac. 795.

21 Porter v. Gossell, 112 Ark. 380, 166 S. W. 533; Gordon v. Churchill, 34 S. D. 411, 148 N. W. 848.

22 Georgia, etc., Co. v. Smith, 83 Ga. 626, 10 S. E. 235.

23 Smith v. Board of Education. 76 W. Va. 239, 85 S. E. 513.

24 Smith v. Board of Education, 76 W. Va. 239, 85 S. E. 513.

25 Jennings v. Todd. 118 Mo. 296. 40 Am. St. Rep. 373, 24 S. W. 148.

26 United States. Western Union Telegraph Co. v. Louisville & N. R. Co., 238 Fed. 26, 151 C. C. A. 102 [reversing decree, Western Union Telegraph Co. v. Louisville & N. R. Co., 229 Fed. 234].

Alabama. Drennen v. Satterfield, 119 Ala. 84, 24 So. 723.

Arkansas. Brady v. Wiemer. 127 Ark. 535, 193 S. W. 273.

California. Melone v. Ruffino. 129 Cal. 514, 79 Am. St. Rep. 127, 62 Pac. 93.

Illinois. Chicago, etc., Bank v. Trust Co.. 190 111. 404, 83 Am. St. Rep. 138, 60 N. E. 586 Taffirming, 92 111. App. 366].

Louisiana. Delogny v. Mercer. 43 La. Ann. 205, 8 So. 003.

Montana. Talbott v. Heinze, 25 Mont.

4. 63 Pac. 624.

New York. Mt. Morris v. Thomas, 158 N. Y. 450, 53 N. E. 214.

27 Farmers' National Bank v. McCall, 25 Okla. 600, 26 L. R. A. (N.S.) 217, 106 Pac. 866.

28 Farmers' National Bank v. McCall, 25 Okla. 600. 26 L. R. A. (N.S.) 217, 106 Pac. 866.

29 Brady v. Wiemer. 127 Ark. 535, 193 S. W. 273; Talbott v. Heinze, 25 Mont. 4, 63 Pac. 624.

30 Mt. Morris, v. Thomas, 158 N. Y. 450, S3 N. E. 214.

31 Leach v. Rains, 149 Ind. 152, 48 N. E. 858.

32 Mobile County v. Linch, - Ala. - , 73 So. 423.

33 Brady v. Wiemer, 127 Ark. 535, 193 S. W. 273.

34 Alabama. Drennen v. Satterfield, 119 Ala. 84, 24 So. 723.

California. Melone v. Ruffino, 129 Cal. 514, 79 Am. St. Rep. 127, 62 Pac. 93.

Illinois. Baltimore & O. S. W. R. Co. v. Brubaker, 217 Til. 462, 75 N. E. 523.

Iowa. Kirkwood v. Perry Town Lot & Improvement Co., 178 Ia. 248, 159 N. W. 774.

Louisiana. Delogny v. Mercer, 43 La. Ann. 205, 8 So. 903.

Minnesota. Shaw v. Church. 44 Minn. 22. 46 N. W. 146.

Nebraska. Wilcox v. Badger Motor Car Co., 99 Neb. 189, 155 N. W. 891.

35Noyes v. Noullet, 118 La. 887, 43 So. 539; Shaw v. Church, 44 Minn. 22, 46 N. W. 146. See Sec. 2045.

36Mannix v. Tryon, 152 Cal. 31, 91 Pac. 983.

A reference to the principal contract as to one matter does not incorporate as to another matter. Guerlni Stone Co. v. Carlin Construction Co., 240 IT. 8. 264, 240 L. ed. 636.

An illustration showing options reserved to the insured, and the insurance policy, must be construed together. Forman v. Mutual Life Insurance Co., 173 Ky. 547, L. R. A. 1918F, 330, 191 S. W. 279.

37Noyes v. Noullet, 118 La. 888, 43 So. 539.

38First National Bank v. Fidelity Co., 145 Ala. 335, 117 Am. St. Rep. 45, 5 L. R. A. (N.S.) 418, 40 So. 415.

39 First National Bank v. Fidelity Co., 145 Ala. 335, 117 Am. St. Rep. 45, 5 L. R. A. (N.S.) 418, 40 So. 415.

40Milske v. Steiner Mantel Co., 103 Md. 235, 115 Am. St. Rep. 354, 5 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1105, 63 Atl. 471.

41Milake v. Steiner Mantel Co., 103 Md. 235, 115 Am. St. Rep. 354, 5 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1105, 63 Atl. 471.

42Melone v. Ruffino. 129 Cal. 514, 79 Am. St. Rep. 127, 62 Pac. 93.

43 Delogny v. Mercer, 43 La. Ann. 205, 8 So. 903.

The opposite result is reached if the agent has no power to bind the insurance company by such estimate. Lu-ellen v. New York Life Insurance Co., 201 Mich. 512, L. R. A. 1918F, 340, 167 N. W. 950.

It is said that the party who claims that two or more different instruments which do not purport to refer to one another or to be parts of the same transaction are in fact parts of the same transaction, has the burden of establishing such fact,47 but that he need only establish it by a preponderance of evidence.48

If two contracts between the same parties dealing with the same subject-matter are executed on different dates and can not be construed together, the latter, of course, abrogates the earlier.49

On the other hand, if the two instruments are not connected in intention, especially where they are executed on different dates, as two deeds executed a week apart,50 or if they deal with different subject-matters, even if executed on the same date, as independent contracts for the sale of different lots,51 they can not be construed together.