Arkansas. Scott v. McCraw, Perkins & Webber Co., 119 Ark. 133, 177 S. W. 901.

Colorado. Bilz v. Powell, 50 Colo. 482, 38 L. R. A. (N.S.) 847, 117 Pac. 344.

New Jersey. Summit v. Morris County Traction Co., 86 N. J. L. 193, L. R. A. 1915E, 385, 88 Atl. 1048; Wood v. Ocean City, 85 N. J. Eq. 328, 96 Atl. 489.

North Carolina. Bradshaw v. Milli-kin, 173 N. Car. 432, L. R. A. 1917E, 880, 92 S. E. 161.

North Dakota. Gile v. Interstate Motor Car Co., 27 N. D. 108, L. R. A. 1915B, 109, 145 N. W. 732.

Oklahoma. Dillon v. Ringleman, 55 Okla. 331, 155 Pac. 563. (So by statute.)

Rhode Island. Darcey v. Darcey, 29 R. I. 384, 23 L. R. A. (N.S.) 886, 71 Atl. 595.

Washington. Madler v. Silverstone, 65 Wash. 159, 34 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1, 104 Pac. 165; Grand Union Laundry Co. v. Carney, 88 Wash. 327, 153 Pac. 5.

13 England. Green v. Price, 13 M. & W. 695.

United States. Pressed Steel Car Co. v. Ry., 121 Fed. 609, 57 C. C. A. 635.

Connecticut. Rabinowitz v. Apter, 90 Conn. 1, 96 Atl. 157.

Florida. Southern Menhaden Co. v. How, 71 Fla. 128, 70 So. 1000.

Georgia. Sanders v. Carter, 91 Ga. 450, 17 S. E. 345.

Illinois. Hennessy v. Metzger, 152 111. 505, 43 Am. St. Rep. 267, 38 N. E. 1058.

Iowa. Joeckel v. Johnson, 178 Ia. 231, 159 N. W. 672.

Massachusetts. Chase v. Allen, 79 Mass. (13 Gray) 42; Garst v. Harris, 177 Mass. 72, 58 N. E. 174.

Nebraska. Brennan v. Clark, 29 Neb. 385, 45 N. W. 472.

New Jersey. Ferber Construction Co. v. Board of Education, 90 N. J. L. 193, 100 Atl. 329; Wood v. Ocean City, 85 N. J. Eq. 328, 96 Atl. 489.

New York. Ward v. Building Co., 125 N. Y. 230, 26 N. E. 256.

North Carolina. Bradshaw v. Milli-kin, 173 N. Car. 432, 92 S. E. 161.

Ohio. Grasselli v. Lowden, 11 O. S. 349.

Washington. Everett Land Co. v. Maney, 16 Wash. 552, 48 Pac. 243.

14 Brooks v. Wichita, 114 Fed. 297, 52 C. C. A. 209.

15Malone v. Philadelphia, 147 Pa. 8t. 416, 23 Atl. 628.

16 New Britain v. Telephone Co., 74 Conn. 326, 50 Atl. 881, 1015. For a similar contract by a railroad, see Grand Trunk Ry. v. Halton County, 21 Can. S. C. 716.

17 Emery v. Boyle, 200 Pa. St. 249, 49 Atl. 779.

18 Jennings v. McCormick, 25 Wash. 427, 66 Pac. 764.

19Guerin v. Stacy, 175 Maps 595, 56 N. E. 892.

29 Henderson v. Murphree, 109 Ala. 556, 20 So. 45.

21 Sanford v. National Bank, 94 Ia. 680, 63 N. W. 459; Doan v. Rogan, 79 O. S. 372, 87 N. E. 263.

22Bilz v. Powell, 50 Colo. 482, 38 L. R. A. (N.S.) 847, 117 Pac. 344.

23Gile v. Interstate Motor Gar Co., 27 X. D. 108, L. R. A. 1915B, 109, 145 N. W. 732.

24 Scott v. McCraw, Perkins & Webber Co., 119 Ark. 133, 177 S. W. 901.

25 Grand Union Laundry Co. v. Carney, 88 Wash. 327, 153 Pac. 5.

26 Martin v. Lott, 144 Ga. 660, 87 S. E. 902; Selby v. Matson, 137 Ia. 97, 14 L. R. A. (N.S.) 12T0, 114 N. W. 509; Nostdal v. Morehart, 132 Minn.

351, 157 N. W. 584; Sanders v. Carter, 91 Ga. 450, 17 S. E. 345; Talkin v. Anderson (Tex.), 19 S. W 852. A contract to pay about seven per cent, of the contract value of realty in case of the refusal of the purchaser to take such land is not so unreasonable as to amount to a penalty. Martin v. Lott, 144 Ga. 660, 87 S. E. 902.

27Rabinowitz v. Apter, 90 Conn. 1. 96 Atl. 157; Madler v. Silverstone, 55 Wash. 159, 34 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1, 104 Pac. 165.

28 Tennessee Mfg. Co. v. James, 91 Tenn. 154, 30 Am. St. Rep. 865, 15 L. R. A. 211, 18 S. W. 262.

29Kilbourne v. Lumber Co.. 111 Ky. 693, 64 S. W. 631.

30 Southern Menhaden Co. v. How, 71 Fla. 128, 70 So. 1000. See Sec. 2131.

This test, however, has been repudiated by the supreme court of the United States,36 and it has been held by them that even though the actual damages can be readily ascertained with certainty, a stipulation for damages in advance is not necessarily a penalty.

31Keeble v. Keeble, 85 Ala. 552, 5 So. 149.

32 Board of Commerce v. Security Trust Co., 225 Fed. 454. 140 C. C. A. 486.

33 Darcey v. Darcey, 29 R. I. 384, 23 L. R. A. (N.S.) 886, 71 Atl. 595.

34United States v. Rubin, 233 Fed. 125.

35 Bilz v. Powell, 50 Colo. 482, 38 L. R. A. (N.S.) 847, 117 Pac. 344.

36 Sun, etc., Association v. Moore, 183 U. S. 642, 46 L. ed. 366.