An irregular indorsement, that is, an indorsement by one not in the chain of title, may be explained by parol in many jurisdictions.1 Such indorser may be shown to be a joint maker,2 or the real debtor,3 or it may be shown that a new note secured by mortgage was to have been given when the first note was half paid,4 or that successive blank indorsers were co-indorsers.5 In other jurisdictions the law regards the liability of an irregular indorser as so clear and certain that oral evidence of the real contract is inadmissible, though there is no harmony among the different jurisdictions as to what that liability is.6

1 Carroll v. Nodine, 41 Or. 412, 03 Am. St. Rep. 743, 61 Pac. 51.

2 Carroll v. Nodine, 41 Or. 412, 93 Am. St. Rep. 743, 69 Pac. 51.

3Youngberg v. Nelson, 51 Minn. 172, 38 Am. St. Rep. 497, 53 N. W. 629.

4 Cross v. Hollister, 47 Kan. 652, 28 Pac. 693.

1 Alabama. Carter v. Long, 125 Ala. 280, 28 So. 74.

Illinois. Kingsland v. Koeppe, 137 111. 344, 13 L. R. A. 649, 28 N. E. 48; Kistner v. Peters, 223 111. 607, 114 Am. St. Rep. 362, 7 L. R. A. (N.S.) 400, 79 N. E. 311.

Kansas. Fullerton v. Hill, 48 Kan. 558,18 L. R. A. 33, 29 Pac. 583.

Ohio. Ewan v. Brooks-Waterfield Co., 55 O. S. 596, 60 Am. St. Rep. 719, 35 L. R. A. 786, 45 N. E. 1094.

Missouri. Herndon v. Lewis, 175 Mo. 116, 74 S. W. 976.

New Jersey. Elliott v. Moreland, 69 N. J. L. 216, 54 Atl. 224.

2 Kistner v. Peters, 223 111. 607, 114 Am. St. Rep. 362, 7 L. R. A. (N.S.) 400, 79 N. E. 311; Commercial National

Bank v. Atkinson, 62 Kan. 775, 64 Pac. 617; Richardson v. Foster, 73 Miss. 12, 55 Am. St. Rep. 481, 18 So. 573; Young v. Sehon, 53 W. Va. 127, 97 Am. St. Rep. 970, 44 S. E. 136.

3Witherow v. Slayback, 158 N. Y. 649, 70 Am. St. Rep. 507, 53 N. E. 681. (So the directors of the indorsing corporation are liable by statute for not including such note in their report filed after the note was given, but before it fell due.)

4 Fullerton v. Hill, 48 Kan. 558, 18 L. R. A. 33, 29 Pac. 583.

5Sloan v. Gibbes, 56 S. Car. 480, 76 Am. St. Rep. 559, 35 S. E. 408 [citing, Phillips V. Preston, 46 U. S. (5 How.) 278, 12 L. ed. 152; Graves v. Johnson, 48 Conn. 160, 40 Am. Rep. 162; Holmes v. Bank, 38 Neb. 326, 41 Am. St. Rep. 733, 56 N. W. 1011; Taylor v. French. 70 Tenn. (2 Lea) 257, 31 Am. Rep. 609]; Brewer v. Woodward, 54 Vt. 581, 41 Am. Rep. 857.

6 Indorser - by statute. Spencer v. Allerton, 60 Conn. 410, 13 L. R. A. 806. 22 Atl. 778 (can not be shown to be guarantor).