Apart from the difficulties which have arisen where the original right was founded upon a record, such as a judgment,1 or where it was embodied in a sealed instrument,2 it is an established rule of law that a judgment,3 or other contract of record,4 of a court of competent jurisdiction, merges the right of action upon which it is rendered, as between the parties to such judgment and those who claim under them. The relation of the parties to the action, the relation of the subject-matter to the judgment, and other questions of jurisdiction and procedure, will be discussed in the following sections.

5 Higgen's Case, 6 Coke 44b.

6 United States v. Price, 50 U. S. (9 How.) 83, 13 L. ed. 66; Scott v. Sander's Heirs, 29 Ky. (6 J. J. Mar.) 506; Daniels v. Runyons, 164 Ky. 309, 175 S. W. 338; Smith v. Boothe, 90 Or. 360, 375, 175 Pac. 709, 176 Pac. 793.

1 See Sec. 2556.

2 See Sec. 2557.

3 England. Biddleson v. Whitel, 1 W. Bl. 506, 3 Burr. 1545.

United States. National Foundry & Pipe Works v. Water Supply Co., 183 U. S. 216, 46 L. ed. 157 [affirming, 105 Wis. 48, 81 N. W. 125].

Arkansas. Hemingway v. Grayling Lumber Co., 125 Ark. 400, 188 S. W. 1186; Barnett v. Western Assurance Co., 132 Ark. 434, 201 S. W. 282.

Illinois. Howell v. Goodrich, 69 111.

556.

Kansas. Remington Paper Co. v. Hudson, 64 Kan. 43, 67 Pac. 636.

Kentucky. Commonwealth v. Hark-ness' Administrator, 181 Ky. 709, 205 S. W. 787; Cummins v. Mullins, 183 Ky. 666, 210 S. W. 170.

Louisiana. Aiken v. Robinson, 108 La. 267, 32 So. 415; American Trust Co. v. Crescent Ice Co., 143 La. 568, 78 So.

942.

Maryland. Packham v. Ins. Co.. 91 Md. 515. 80 Am. St. Rep. 461, 50 L. R. A. 828, 46 Atl. 1066.

Massachusetts. Dalton v. American Ammonia Co., 231 Mass. 430, 121 N. E. 407.

Michigan. Thompson v. Ellsworth, 39 Mich. 719; Kimmerle v. Lowitz, - Mich. - , 169 N. W. 857.

Minnesota. Gould y. Svendsgaard, 141 Minn. 437, 170 N. W. 595.

New Jersey. Traflet v. Ins. Co., 64 N. J. L. 387, 46 Atl. 204.

New York. Young v. Farwell, 166 N. Y. 341, 59 N. E. 143.

North Carolina. Case Mfg. Co. v. Moore, 144 N. Car. 527, 119 Am. St. Rep. 983, 10 L. R. A. (N.S.) 734, 57 8. E. 213.

Ohio. James v. Allen Co., 44 O. S. 226, 58 Am. Rep. 821, 6 N. E. 246.

Oklahoma. Uncle Sam Oil Co. v. Richards, - Okla. - , 175 Pac. 749.

Rhode Island. Garabedian v. Avedi-sian, - R. I. - , 105 Atl. 516.

Washington. Carmean v. North American Transportation & Trading Co., 45 Wash. 446, 122 Am. St. Rep. 930, 8 L. R. A. (N.S.) 595, 88 Pac. 834; Denton v. Maple, 92 Wash. 290, 158 Pac. 1001; Petri v. Manny, 99 Wash. 601, 170 Pac 127. A judgment may be rendered as security for future advances. First Mortgage Bond Homestead Association v. Mehlhorn, - Md. - , 3 A. L. R. 844, 105 Atl. 526. This is a form of security much like the recognizance as originally lined. See Sec. 1152.

4 Berry v. Somerset Ry., 89 Me. 552, 36 Atl. 904.