Kentucky. Shaw v. Ingram-Day Lumber Co., 152 Ky. 329, L. R. A. 1915D, 145, 153 S. W. 431.

Hew York. Fuller v. Robinson, 86 N. Y. 306, 40 Am. Rep. 540.

Tennessee. Pennsylvania Ry. v. Naive, 112 Tenn. 239, 64 L. R. A. 443, 79 S. W. 124.

22 Insurance Companies v. Wright, 68 U. & (1 Wall.) 456, 17 L. ed. 505.

23 Byrd v. Beal, 150 Ala. 122, 124 Am. St. Rep. 60, 43 So. 749.

24 United States. Cook v. Flagg, 251 Fed. 5.

Arkansas. Burton v. Wilson, - Ark. - , 205 S. W. 655.

California. Crocker National Bank v. Byrne, - Gal. - , 173 Pac. 752.

Georgia. Deadwyler v. Karow, 131 Ga. 227, 19 L. R. A. (N.S.) 197, 62 S. E. 172.

Washington. Myers v. Exchange National Bank (Wash.), 164 Pac. 951.

This rule applies to customs in violation of the positive provisions of a statute. Crocker National Bank v. Byrne, - Cal. - , 173 Pac. 752; Deadwyler v. Karow, 131 Ga. 227, 19 L. R. A. (N.S.) 197, 62 S. E. 172.

1 United States. Oelricks v. Ford, 64 U. S. (23 How.) 49, 16 L. ed. 534; Insurance Companies v. Wright, 68 U. S. (1 Wall.) 456, 17 L. ed. 505; Barnard v. KeUojrjr, 77 U. S. (10 Wall.) 383, 19 L. ed. 987; Hearne v. Marine Ins. Co., 87 U. S. (20 Wall.) 488, 22 L. ed. 395; National Bank v. Burkhardt, 100 U. S. 686, 25 L. ed. 766; Hostetter v. Park, 137 U. S. 30, 34 L. ed. 568; Moore v. United States, 196 U. S. 157, 166, 49 L. ed. 428; Great Lakes Coal & Dock Co. v. Seither Transit Co., 220

Fed. 28; Pabst Brewing Co. v. E. Clemens Horst Co., 229 Fed. 913, 144 C. C. A. 195; The Rebecca R. Douglass, 248 Fed. 366.

Alabama. Middleton v. Western Union Telegraph Co., 197 Ala. 243, 72 So. 548; People's Bank & Trust Co. v. Walthall, - Ala. - , 75 So. 570.

Arkansas. Burton v. Wilson, - Ark. - 205 S. W. 655.

Iowa. McDowell v. Bowles, Billings & Kessler Grain Co., 177 la. 744, 157 N. W. 173.

Kansas. Fidelity & Deposit Co. of Maryland v. Callahan, 98 Kan. 547, 158 Pac. 658; Cargill Commission Co. v. Mowery, 99 Kan. 389, 161 Pac. 634 [modified on rehearing, Cargill Commission Co. v. Mowery, 162 Pac. 313].

Kentucky. City of Covington v. Kanawha Coal & Coke Co., 121 Ky. 681, 123 Am. St. Rep. 219, 3 L. R. A. (N.S.) 248, 12 Ann. Cas. 311, 89 S. W. 1126.

Massachusetts. Menage v. Rosenthal, 175 Mass. 358, 56 N. E. 579; Fol-lins v. Dill, 229 Mass. 321, 118 N. E. 644.

Missouri. State, exrel., v. Public Service Commission 269 Mo. 63, 189 S. W. 377.

New Mexico. Gooch v. Coleman, 22 N. M. 45, 159 Pac. 945.

Oregon. Interior Warehouse Co. v. Dunn, 80 Or. 528, 157 Pac. 806.

Rhode Island. Watkins v. Greene, 22 R. I. 34, 46 Atl. 38.

Virginia. Scott's Ex'r v. Chester-man, 117 Va. 584, 85 S. E. 502; Straus v. Fahed, 117 Va. 633, 85 S. E. 969;

Sutherland & Co. v. Gibson, 117 Va. 840, 86 S. E. 108.

Washington. Wilkins v. Kessinger, 90 Wash. 447, 156 Pac. 389.

Wisconsin. Vogt v. Schienebeck, 122 Wis. 491, 106 Am. St. Rep. 989, 67 L. R. A. 756, 2 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 814, 100 N. W. 820; State v. Park, 166 Wis. 386, 165 N. W. 289.

Wyoming. Leitner v. Thayer, 24 Wyom. 378, 159 Pac. 1084.

Usage "may be resorted to in order to make definite what is uncertain, clear up what is doubtful or annex incidents but not to vary or contradict the terms of a contract." Moore v. United States, 196 U. S. 157, 166, 49 L. ed. 428 [citing, Oelricks v. Ford, 64 U. S. (23 How.) 49, 16 L. ed. 534; Insurance Companies v. Wright, 68 U. S. (1 Wall.) 456, 17 L. ed. 505; Barnard v. Kellogg, 77 U. S. (10 Wall.) 383, 19 L. ed. 987; Hearne v. Marine Ins. Co.,

87 U. S. (20 Wall.) 488, 22 L. ed. 395; National Bank v. Burkhardt, 100 U. S. 686, 25 L. ed. 766; Hostetter v. Park, 137 U. S. 30, 34 L. ed. 568].

2Follins v. Dill, 229 Mass. 321, 118 N. E. 644.

3 State v. Park, 166 Wis. 386, 165 N. W. 289.

4 Boon v. The Belfast, 40 Ala. 184,

88 Am. Dec. 761; Louisville, etc., Co. v. Rogers, 20 Ind. App. 594, 49 N. E. 970; Benson v. Gray, 154 Mass. 391, 13 L. R. A. 262, 28 N. E. 275; Meloche v. Ry., 116 Mich. 69, 74 N. W. 301.

5 Vogt v. Schienebeck, 122 Wis. 491, 106 Am. St. Rep. 989, 67 L. R. A. 756, 2 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 814, 100 N. W. 820.

6 Mowatt v. Wilkinson, 110 Wis. 176, 85 N. W. 661.

7 Withers v. Moore, 140 Cal. 591, 74 Pac. 159 [reversing in banc, 71 Pac. 697].

8 McDowell v. Bowles, Billings & Kessler Grain Co., 177 la. 744, 157 N. W. 173.

9 Swift v. Petroleum Co., 141 Cal. 161, 74 Pac. 700 [reversing in banc, 70 Pac. 470].

10 Stoddard v. Emery, 128 Pa. St. 436, 18 Atl. 339.

11 Independent School District v. Swearingen, 119 la. 702, 94 N. W. 206.

12 Harris v. Sharpies, 202 Pa. St. 243, 58 L. R. A. 214, 51 Atl. 965.

13 Levy v. Hoffman, 235 Fed. 46, 148 C. C. A. 540; Ady v. Jenkins, - Md. - , 104 Atl. 178.

14 Comstock Amusement Co. v. Opera Ball Co., 93 O. S. 46, 112 N. E. 150.

15 Ady v. Jenkins, - Md. - , 104 Atl. 178.

16 Dunning v. Lederer, Strauss & Co., 164 Wis. 399, 160 N. W. 159.

17 Pratt Consol. Coal Co. v. Short, 191 Ala. 378, 68 So. 63.

C. C. A. 237; Leschen & Sons Rope Co. v. Mayflower Gold Min. & R. Co., 173 Fed. 855, 97 C. C. A. 465, 35 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1; Ferguson v. Omaha & S. W. R. Co., 227 Fed. 513; Roller v. Leonard, 229 Fed. 607, 143 C. C. A. 629; Vinton Petroleum Co. v. Sun Co., 230 Fed. 105, 144 C. C. A. 403; Pitt Construction Co. v. City of Dayton, 237 Fed.

305; Eustis Mining Co. v. Beer, Sond-heimer Co., Inc., 239 Fed. 976; Brown v. Fletcher, 244 Fed. 854; Merrill-Ruck-gaber Co. v. United States, 49 Ct. CI. 553; Harten v. Loffler, 29 D. C. App. 490.

Alabama. Crass v. Scruggs, 115 Ala. 258, 22 So. 81; Lutz v. Van Heynigen Brokerage Co., - Ala. - , 75 So. 284.

Alaska. Daigle v. Maddocks, 2 Alaska 387.

Arkansas. Goodwin v. Baker, 129 Ark. 513, 197 R. W. 10.

California. Remy v. Olds (Cal.), 21 L. R. A. 645, 34 Pac. 216; Stein v. Archibald, 151 Cal. 220, 90 Pac. 536.