In a resolution in an early English case,1 the court said that a deed was avoided by any alteration, even of immaterial words. This rule has been recognized in some early cases in the United States,2 and it is still the rule in a few jurisdictions.3 It has been said that even an immaterial alteration in a money-bearing or title-bearing obligation avoids it.4 In some cases this statement is obiter, as the alteration is held to be material,5 or was made to correct a mistake in expression,6 or the cases are cases of spoliation.7

The great weight of modern authority in the United States, however, is to the effect that an immaterial alteration does not avoid a written contract.8 This is true whether the alteration was made innocently or fraudulently.9

7 Illinois. Elliott v. Blair, 47 111. 342.

Iowa. Clough v. Seay, 49 la. 111.

Kansas. Edington v. McLeod, 87 Kan. 426, 41 L. R. A. (N.S.) 230, 124 Pac. 163.

Massachusetts. Jeffrey v. Rosenfeld, 170 Mass. 506, 61 N. E. 49.

Missouri. Baskin v. Wayne, 62 Mo. App. 515.

South Carolina. Gillett v. Powell, Speers Eq. (S. Oar.) 142.

Wisconsin. Gorden v. Robertson, 48 Wis. 493, 4 N. W. 579.

8 Tate v. Fletcher, 77 Ind. 102; Bowman v. Mitchell, 79 Ind. 84; Hocknell v. Sheley, 66 Kan. 357, 71 Pac. 839; Walton Plow Co. v. Campbell, 35 Neb. 173, 16 L. R. A. 468, 52 N. W. 883; West v. Naten, 49 Okla. 249, 152 Pac. 342.

Contra, Hoffman v. Molloy, 91 Mo. App. 367; Plyler v. Elliott, 19 S. Car. 257; Smith v. Smith, 27 S. Car. 166, 13 Am. St. Rep. 633, 3 S. E. 78.

1 Pigot's Case, 11 Coke 26b, 27a.

2 Morris v. Vanderen, 1 U. S. (1

Dall.) 64, 1 L. ed. 38; Lewis v. Payn, 8 Cow. (N. Y.) 71, 18 Am. Dec. 427; Piercy v. Piercy, 5 W. Va. 199.

See to the same effect, Greenleaf on Ev. (16th ed.), Sec. 568; 2 Parson's Notes and Bills (2nd ed.), Sec. 572; Bishop on Cont. (2nd ed.), Sec. 755, the latter author saying: "Where in making an immaterial alteration he means a fraud, yet, mistaking the law does not accomplish his purpose, the other party will, in reason, be discharged."

3 Kelly v. Thuey, 143 Mo. 422, 45 S. W. 300 [affirming in banc, 37 S. W. 516]; Vanauken v. Hornbeck, 14 N. J. L. 178, 25 Am. Dec. 509; Hunt v. Gray, 35 N. J. L. 227, 10 Am. Rep. 232.

4 Kelly v. Thuey, 143 Mo. 422, 45 S W. 300 [affirming in banc, 37 S. W. 516].

5United States Glass Co. v. Bottle Co., 81 Fed. 993; Crockett v. Thorn-ason, 37 Tenn. (5 Sneed) 342.

6 Turner v. Billagram, 2 Cal. 520.

7 Lumbering v. Kohlbrecher, 22 Ma 596.

8 United States. Gordon v. Chattanooga Third National Bank, 144 U. S. 97, 36 L. ed. 360.

Alabama. Nance v. Gray, 143 Ala. 234, 38 So. 916.

California. Oakland First National Bank v. Wolff, 79 Cal. 69, 21 Pac. 551, 748.

Connecticut. Nichols v. Johnson, 10 Conn. 192.

Georgia. Shirley v. Swafford, 119 Ga. 43, 45 S. . 722.

Idaho. Exchange State Bank v. Ta-ber, 26 Ida. 723, 145 Pac. 1090.

Illinois. Reed v. Kemp, 16 III. 445; McKibben v. Newell, 41 111. 461; Ryan V. First National Bank, 148 111. 349 [sub nomine, Reilly v. First National Bank, 35 N. E. 1120].

Indiana. State, ex rel., v. Berg, 50 Ind. 496; Shuck v. State, 136 Ind. 63, 35 N. E. 993; Fry v. P. Bannon Sewer Pipe Co., 179 Ind. 309, 101 N. E. 10.

Iowa. Briscoe v. Reynolds, 51 la. 673, 2 N. W. 529; Rowley v. Jewett, 56 la. 492, 9 N. W. 353.

Kentucky. Shelton v. Dcering, 49 Ky. (10 B. Mon.) 405; Terry v. Hazle-wood, 62 Ky. (1 Duv.) 104; Citizens' State Bank of Greenup v. Johnson County, 182 Ky. 531, 207 S. W. 8.

Louisiana. Hottinger v. Hottinger, 49 La. Ann. 1633, 22 So. 847.

Massachusetts. Smith v. Crooker, 5 Mass. 538; Granite Ry. Co. v. Bacon, 32 Mass. (15 Pick.) 239.

Michigan. Goodenow v. Curtis, 33 Mich. 505.

Minnesota. Herrick v. Baldwin, 17 Minn. 209, 10 Am. Rep. 161; Spicring v. Spiering, 138 Minn. 119, 164 N. W. 683; Beck Electric Construction Co. v. National Contracting Co., - Minn. -, 173 N. W. 413.

Mississippi Bridges v. Winters, 42 Miss. 135, 2 Am. Rep. 598, 97 Am. Dec. 443.

Missouri. Heman v. Gilliam, 171 Mo. 258, 71 S.W. 163.

Nebraska. Palmer v. Largent, 5 Neb. 223, 25 Am. Rep. 479; Fisherdick v. Hutton, 44 Neb. 122, 62 N. W. 488; Blenkiron Brothers v. Rogers, 87 Neb. 716, 31 L. R. A. (N.S.) 127, 127 N. W. 1062.

New Hampshire. Pequawket Bridge v. Mathes, 8 N. H. 139; Burnham v. Ayer, 35 N. H. 351.

New York. Flint v. Craig, 59 Barb. (N. Y.) 319.

North Dakota. Eaton v. Delay, 32 N. D. 328, L. R. A. 1916D, 528, 155 N. W. 644.

Ohio. Huntington v. Finch, 3 O. S 445.

Oregon. Palomaki v. Laurell, 86 Or. 491, 168 Pac. 935; Temple v. Harrington, 90 Or. 295, 176 Pac. 430.

Pennsylvania. Robertson v. Hay, 91 Pa. St. 242.

South Carolina. Merchants' National Bank v. Smith, - S. Car. -, 96 S. E. 690.

Tennessee. Blair v. Bank, 30 Tcnn. (11 Humph.) 84.

Texas. Churchill v. Bielstein, 9 Tex. Civ. App. 445.

Vermont. Langdon v. Paul, 20 Vt. 217.

Washington. Lombardo v. Lombar-dini, 67 Wash. 352, 32 L. R. A. (N.S.) 515, 106 Pac. 907.

. Wisconsin. Fuller v. Green, 64 Wis. 150, 54 Am. Rep. 600, 24 N. W. 907.

9 Illinois. Vogel v. Ripper, 34 III. 100, 85 Am. Dec 298; Magers v. Dun-lap, 39 III. App. 618.

Iowa. Robinson v. Phoenix Insurance Co., 25 la. 430.

Kentucky. Citizens' State Bank v. Johnson County, 182 Ky. 531, 207 S. W. 8.

Massachusetts. Commonwealth v. Bank, 98 Mass. 12, 93 Am. Dec. 126.