In Societies where an annual or semiannual election for officers is held, it is usual to provide in the by-laws that the old officers shall retain their places, until the new ones are regularly chosen. The proper course of proceeding is for the President to announce, at the proper time, that the election for officers is the next business in order. Some member will then move that tellers be appointed to conduct the election. When the result is declared by the tellers, the President should repeat the statement, and request the newly elected officers to take their appropriate seats. If re-elected himself, he should make his acknowledgements, and then proceed with the regular business.

In Boards of Managers, at the meeting to organize, it is usual to call some gentleman to the chair, for a temporary organization, whom it is not designed to elect as President.

When tellers are appointed to count the votes, in an election by ballot,* they should, while counting off, read the votes aloud, so that all who desire may hear and count for themselves. In choosing officers, a majority of the whole number of votes is necessary to effect an election.

In all cases where other than members of the House are eligible to office, it is usual in the S,tate Legislature, to make a previous nomination.

* In Congress, blank ballots are rejected, and not taken into the count, in the enumeration of votes