Most of the time, you will start using a Subversion
repository by doing a checkout of your
project. Checking out a repository creates a “working
copy” of it on your local machine. This copy contains
HEAD (latest revision) of the Subversion
repository that you specify on the command line:
$ svn checkout http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk A trunk/Makefile.in A trunk/ac-helpers A trunk/ac-helpers/install.sh A trunk/ac-helpers/install-sh A trunk/build.conf … Checked out revision 8810.
Although the above example checks out the trunk directory, you can just as easily check out any deep subdirectory of a repository by specifying the subdirectory in the checkout URL:
$ svn checkout \ http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk/subversion/tests/cmdline/ A cmdline/revert_tests.py A cmdline/diff_tests.py A cmdline/autoprop_tests.py A cmdline/xmltests A cmdline/xmltests/svn-test.sh … Checked out revision 8810.
Since Subversion uses a “copy-modify-merge” model instead of “lock-modify-unlock” (see the section called “Versioning Models”), you can start right in making changes to the files and directories in your working copy. Your working copy is just like any other collection of files and directories on your system. You can edit and change them, move them around, you can even delete the entire working copy and forget about it.
While your working copy is “just like any other collection of files and directories on your system”, you can edit files at will, but you must tell Subversion about everything else that you do. For example, if you want to copy or move an item in a working copy, you should use svn copy or svn move instead of the copy and move commands provided by your operating system. We'll talk more about them later in this chapter.
Unless you're ready to commit the addition of a new file or directory, or changes to existing ones, there's no need to further notify the Subversion server that you've done anything.
While you can certainly check out a working copy with the URL of the repository as the only argument, you can also specify a directory after your repository URL. This places your working copy in the new directory that you name. For example:
$ svn checkout http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk subv A subv/Makefile.in A subv/ac-helpers A subv/ac-helpers/install.sh A subv/ac-helpers/install-sh A subv/build.conf … Checked out revision 8810.
That will place your working copy in a directory named
subv instead of a directory named
trunk as we did previously. The directory
subv will be created if it doesn't already