The next problem in order is that of the desk-pad corner. The size may be from 2" to 4" along the side, with 1/2" allowed on each side to turn under. The method of laying and cutting out is shown in Fig. 13. The four corners may be laid out, the design painted on with sapolin. and etched all on one piece of metal and then cut out. Now bend over the two edges over the lapping-stake with the mallet, as shown in Figs. 17 and 18, being careful to keep the work square. Then place it face down on top of the lapping-stake, or on the bench-top or flat piece of wood, and bend the laps down until they are parallel with the top, with space enough between to allow of the insertion of the blotting-pad. Sometimes the metal gets hard in this bending process, especially if you do not get it just right the first time and have to bend it back. If it does at any time get hard and difficult to bend, light the Bunsen burner and adjust the flame so that it is blue without any trace of yellow, and anneal the metal by holding it in the flame until it gets red-hot, which should take about three minutes; then plunge it in cold water and you will find the metal soft again. Then continue to bend until it is right.

When you wish to clean a piece of metal that has been in the flame, it is always best to immerse it in the sulphuric acid solution and rinse in water, then polish and color by any of the previously described methods, and finish with the banana oil to retain the color. The desk-pad may be bought or made - the kind that is made of two pieces glued together, the bottom piece 1/4" larger all around than the top piece, is the best. To fasten the metal corners to the pad, loosen the corners of the pad with a knife, put a little LePage's glue inside of the metal corner, and push it on the top pad; then glue the two pads together again and allow to dry.

The book-end is the problem next in order. It requires a piece of 18-gage soft copper or brass 7" long by 6" wide. Of the 7" in length we use 4" to etch the design on and 3" to turn under at right angles for the base.

An allowance may be made of 1/4" all around the edge of the design for lapping over, or it may be finished without lapping the edge. Lapping the edge in this way is not difficult, and makes the book-end stronger and gives a smooth edge. After the design is put on and etched (a large photographer's glass developing tray is best to etch book-ends in) and the sapolin cleaned off, with the shears cut off the surplus metal, remembering to allow the 1/4" extra for lapping over. Then on the lapping-stake which has straight and curved edges for straight and curved outlines, lap over the edge, following the steps as shown in Fig. 13. Lap all around the edge smooth like No. 1 in the drawing; then a little more, like No. 2; then turn it over and lay it, design down, on the •bench or on a block of wood and hammer it down like No. 3; and finally on the smooth surface of the lapping-stake beat down the edge lightly with the ball end of the hammer, like No. 4, as smooth as possible. Next beat up the design on the block of wood in the same way as in the preceding problems; then hammer the design carefully with either end of the hammer on the smoothing-stake, the object being to get a smooth, uniform finish all over the book-end. Now place the book-end, design upward, on the edge of a bench or table with a sharp corner, allowing the bottom part that is to be turned under to project over the edge, and bend it down at right angles to the design part, with the hands, as shown in Fig. 20, and make the corner sharp and smooth with the mallet; color by any of the previously described methods, and finish with the banana oil.

Fig. 19. Book ends.

Fig. 19. Book-ends.

Fig . 20 Bending the base of the book end

Fig. 20 Bending the base of the book-end.

Fig . 21. Book ends and calendar.

Fig. 21. Book-ends and calendar.