Telegraphing Without Wires

Wireless telegraphy is an outgrowth of the ordinary telegraph system. When Maxwell, and, later on, Hertz, discovered that electricity, magnetism, and light were transmitted through the ether, and that they differed only in their wave lengths, they laid the foundations for wireless telegraphy. Ether is a substance which is millions and millions of times lighter than air, and it pervades all space. It is so unstable that it is constantly in motion, and this phase led some one to suggest that if a proper electrical apparatus could be made, the ether would thereby be disturbed sufficiently so that its impulses would extend out a distance proportioned to the intensity of the electrical agitation thereby created.

Surging Character Of High-Tension Currents

When a current of electricity is sent through a wire, hundreds of miles in length, the current surges back and forth on the wire many thousands of times a second. Light comes to us from the sun, over 90,000,000 of miles, through the ether. It is as reasonable to suppose, or infer, that the ether can, therefore, convey an electrical impulse as readily as does a wire.

It is on this principle that impulses are sent for thousands of miles, and no doubt they extend even farther, if the proper mechanism could be devised to detect movement of the waves so propagated.

The Coherer

The instrument for detecting these impulses, or disturbances, in the ether is generally called a coherer, although detector is the term which is most satisfactory. The name coherer comes from the first practical instrument made for this purpose.

Fig. 75. Wireless Telegraphy CohererFig. 75. Wireless Telegraphy Coherer

How Made

The coherer is simply a tube, say, of glass, within which is placed iron filings. When the oscillations surge through the secondary coil the pressure or potentiality of the current finally causes it to leap across the small space separating the filings and, as it were, it welds together their edges so that a current freely passes. The bringing together of the particles, under these conditions, is called cohering.

Fig. 75 shows the simplest form of coherer. The posts (A) are firmly affixed to the base (B), each post having an adjusting screw (C) in its upper end, and these screw downwardly against and serve to bind a pair of horizontal rods (D), the inner ends of which closely approach each other. These may be adjusted so as to be as near together or as far apart as desired. E is a glass tube in which the ends of the rods (D) rest, and between the separated ends of the rods (D) the iron filings (F) are placed.

The Decoherers

For the purpose of causing the metal filings to fall apart, or decohere, the tube is tapped lightly, and this is done by a little object like the clapper of an electric bell.

In practice, the coils and the parts directly connected with it are put together on one base.

The Sending Apparatus

Fig. 76 shows a section of a coil with its connection in the sending station. The spark gap rods (A) may be swung so as to bring them closer together or farther apart, but they must not at any time contact with each other.

The induction coil has one terminal of the primary coil connected up by a wire (B) with one post of a telegraph key, and the other post of the key has a wire connection (C), with one side of a storage battery. The other side of the battery has a wire (D) running to the other terminal of the primary.

Fig. 76. Wireless Sending ApparatusFig. 76. Wireless Sending Apparatus

The secondary coil has one of its terminals connected with a binding post (E). This binding post has an adjustable rod with a knob (F) on its end, and the other binding post (G), which is connected up with the other terminal of the secondary coil, carries a similar adjusting rod with a knob (H).

From the post (E) is a wire (I), which extends upwardly, and is called the aerial wire, or wire for the antennæ, and this wire also connects with one side of the condenser by a conductor (J). The ground wire (K) connects with the other binding post (G), and a branch wire (L) also connects the ground wire (K) with one end of the condenser.

Fig. 77. Wireless Receiving ApparatusFig. 77. Wireless Receiving Apparatus

The Receiving Apparatus

The receiving station, on the other hand, has neither condenser, induction coil, nor key. When the apparatus is in operation, the coherer switch is closed, and the instant a current passes through the coherer and operates the telegraph sounder, the galvanometer indicates the current.

Of course, when the coherer switch is closed, the battery operates the decoherer

How The Circuits Are Formed

By referring again to Fig. 76, it will be seen that when the key is depressed, a circuit is formed from the battery through wire B to the primary coil, and back again to the battery through wire D. The secondary coil is thereby energized, and, when the full potential is reached, the current leaps across the gap formed between the two knobs (F, H), thereby setting up a disturbance in the ether which is transmitted through space in all directions.

It is this impulse, or disturbance, which is received by the coherer at the receiving station, and which is indicated by the telegraph sounder.