This section is from the book "Arts & Crafts Magazine Vol1-2", by Hutchinson & Company.
To the beginner in pen drawing it is at first a great relief to be allowed to use cross-hatching. It is so easy to make a light tint darker, an uneven tint more even by adding a few lines drawn across those already made. But the true use of cross-hatching is to represent the material, the texture of the subject, to be able to discriminate between flesh and drapery, drapery and foliage, foliage and rock surface. For this it is necessary to be able to vary from a smooth and flowing texture to a rough and highly irregular one; to distinguish various sorts of leafage - the loose and floating character of the elm, the stiffness of the oak, the large broad leaves of the chestnut, and the narrow leaves of the willow. To do all this with certainty the beginner must learn how to produce many varieties of texture separately, and then notice how they affect one another when used together. Separately, one may mean no more than another, like the letters of the alphabet; but together, if they are used with knowledge, they become really expressive, and may stand not only for shadow and light, but for greater and less complexity, suggesting here a thinly clad branch and there a mass of tangled foliage.
Fig. 17. - Oblique lines in opposite directions.
In shading an object like the rounded trunk of a tree, the lines will follow the modelling of the surface; the even face of a wall of cut stone and its horizontal layers will be shown by a tint mostly of horizontal lines. In all cases the effect of perspective in making lines seem to approach one another as they recede should be observed. It is one of the most important means of obtaining an expression of distance or of roundness in pen drawing. The lines above the eye should run down toward the horizon, while those below should run up to meet them. This may seem an arbitrary rule, but where horizontal lines occur in nature it will be found that they follow it, as in the layers of many rocks and the strips of bark that frequently peel off from the trunk of the birch-tree.
It is sometimes enough to give character to a piece of cross-hatching to let one set of lines predominate, while a rough but even texture, like that of cloth, is best represented by lines crossing in all directions. Where the dominant lines show the modelling of the subject, the lines crossing them should be very slight and as few as may be, so as not to obscure the important facts of form.
Fig. 18. - Pine Foliage.
Fig. 19. - Oak Foliage.
Fig. 20. - Example of the use of horizontal lines.
Fig. 21. - Treatment of Foreground Herbage.
Usually it is best not to let the crossed lines form squares, because the tint so produced is monotonous and rather disagreeable. Nevertheless, in indicating roughly reflections in still water this plan may be followed. The reason is that, the water being quite level, all the slight lines that are caused by the current take a horizontal direction, while the lines of the reflected image show distinctly only where they cross these at right angles. But it is, for the same reason, truer to work the whole in horizontal touches, taking special pains, however, with the reflections of the upright branches. The first method is practically the best where a large distant mass of reflected colour is to be given; the second where the subject is a foreground one and the reflections should be wrought out in detail.
Do not use the term "reflection" and "shadow" indiscriminately. Young laches are apt to speak of reflections as shadows - shadows of trees in water, etc. Trees or other objects do not cast shadows on the surface of water unless the water is muddy or discoloured. The shadow on clear water is projected on the bottom. Many artists will dispute this fact, but it is because they have not clearly observed the things in nature. Y. W.
Fig. 22. - Willow Foliage.