IN making a pen and ink study of roses, such as that on the following page, which was designed for a tail-piece - it is well to make first a rough sketch of the subject just as you have it in mind. Then bring your roses and arrange them as nearly as may be to what you wish. After this, endeavour to avoid many outlines, and to keep every shadow and petal as simple as possible;. express frankly and fearlessly on the paper before you your own conception of the group you have in mind. If it be a failure, another piece of bristol-board awaits you, and the roses which serve you for suggestions will last yet a little while.

In pen work clone purely for study, as this is, it is helpful to consider the subject distinctly under four conditions - viz., form, light and shade, colour, and texture. It is not necessary to try to embody all of these perfectly in one drawing, but each should receive attention. Take the present subject, and consider it purely from the standpoint of form. We will find the petals of each kind of rose distinct in character and shape, and growing as no other rose does; its leaves may be specially sharp-pointed, or perhaps rounding and blunt; and the manner in which the flower is set on its stem, or the way the leaves spring, will all come under the head of form. Take it again and consider it only from the standpoint of light and shade; the darker half of the flower turned away from the light becomes apparent in contrast to the side turned toward the light; the shadow sides of the leaves are marked, the light and shade on the stem; and we take note of an entirely different set of ideas from those embodied in the study of form. Again, let us consider the colour. We will find, of course, the chief colour contrast between the leaves and the flower itself; and a few experiments will show how largely colour has to be either sacrificed or forced in pen "work. Do not, however, sacrifice more than is absolutely necessarv. Black and white drawings are often unnecessarily violent, because the slighter values have not been sufficiently studied.

Finally, let us look at our subject from the standpoint of texture. Here we again find need for attention to details not included under the study of form, shadows, or colour, a need tor careful rendering in the delicate texture of petals, the heavier one of leaves, or that which is vet more rough and thick in the branch itself.

In considering a group of leaves from the standpoint of texture, we may learn that the lines will best express the surface when running obliquely or directly across, to keep it Hat; or again thai the rose leaf seems most like one when rendered with lines diverging from mid-rib. An occasional one in outline will serve to concentrate interest upon those more elaborately treated. It is useful to remember this when making sketches other than those of flowers. E. M. Hallowell.