Observation shows that if one side of a board is kept damp and the other dried, the former will expand so that the plank, although originally straight, becomes curved as in Fig. 1. Or if one side of a board is exposed to the air, while the other is more or less protected, as in the stack of boards shown in Fig. 2, the exposed side of the upper board will give off its moisture more rapidly than the other side, and the board will warp or bend in the direction shown by the dotted lines. The second board will also "draw" and to some extent follow the first, being in turn followed by the third, and so on until the entire stack is warped and bent.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100100

Fig. 1.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100101

Fig. 2.

The same will be found true of a well-seasoned board if after being planed it is allowed to lie on its side on the work-bench. The upper side will give off its moisture more freely than is possible for the under side; the latter being protected and having its moisture retained by the bench. The lower side of the board is thus caused to expand, and the upper to contract, with the result that the board, although originally planed straight, becomes curved. For this reason all lumber, even if well-seasoned, should be so placed in racks, or on end, that the air may have free access to both sides of the planks; and newly planed boards, however dry and well seasoned, should never be stacked together, but so placed that both sides will be exposed alike.

This tendency to warp is explained to some extent by the porous nature of all woods, and their inclination to give off or to absorb moisture according to the condition of the surrounding atmosphere. As there is always more or less moisture in the air, and lumber of all kinds contains an amount of moisture which is ever changing according to the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere; this causes corresponding expansion or contraction of the wood.

Even under cover and in a dry place, wood has a tendency to warp on account of the greater shrinkage of the newer as compared with the older cells of the wood tissue or fiber in the side of the board nearest to the outside or sap wood of the tree. The inner side A of the board (Fig. 3) being closer to the heart wood, is older than the side B; its cells are firmer and more compact than those of B. As the board seasons, the newer and more open cells of the side B will shrink faster and to a greater extent than those of A, thus causing the board to draw or warp in the direction indicated by the dotted lines.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100102

Fig. 3.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100103

Fig. i.

In gluing or building up stock for a pattern, this tendency may be corrected to some extent, by reversing the grain of the pieces that are to be glued, and placing two outsides (as B, Fig. 3) or two insidcs (as A, Fig. 3) together. This is fully illustrated in Fig. 4.

In gluing very thin pieces together for the webs or centers of pulleys and for other purposes, it is often necessary to reverse the grain of the pieces, or to place the grain of one piece at right angles to that of the other, for the purpose of gaining greater strength and stiffness. In such cases, if only two thin pieces are used, the result, after they have been glued and dried, will be to some extent as shown in Fig. 5, the shrinkage and strain of the end grain crosswise of the board at a, being sufficient to bend the opposing thin board lengthwise of the grain at i, while on the side cd, the curve will be reversed for the same reason. Whenever it is necessary to cross the grain, of thin- pieces for a pattern, three or more pieces should be used, which will give satisfactory results if placed together as shown in Fig. 6.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100104

Fir. 5.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100105

Fig. 6.

When thin circular disks of large size are to be glued up for patterns of any kind, the strongest, stiffest, and most satisfactory results will be obtained if the pieces are fitted and glued tangentially to the hub or other center or opening in the disk, as shown in Fig. 7.

The grain of the wood must run lengthwise, and parallel to the longest side of each sector; and, after the pieces have been fitted together, a thin groove is cut in the edge of each, in which thin tongues of wood are inserted and glued, as illustrated in Fig. 8.

Two disks are glued up, and one is turned over so as to reverse the grain of the sectors of one disk on that of the other, as shown by the dotted lines. The disks are then glued together, making a very rigid construction, and one which, owing to the continual change in the direction of the grain, will not warp.

Should a wide and thin piece of a single thickness be required for a pattern, the board from which it is to be made should be ripped into strips of two, three, or four inches in width (according to the width of the required board), and the strips glued together again with each alternate strip reversed, as shown in Fig. 9. In this way the tendency to warp is to a great extent corrected, each narrow strip being inclined to warp in an opposite direction to that of its neighbor.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100106

Fig. 7.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100107

Fig. 8.

Warping And Twisting Of Wood 100108

Fig. 9.