The proportions for a cement for the socket joint of a steam pipe are, by weight, 1 part of powdered sal-ammoniac, 2 parts of flour sulphur, and 80 to 100 parts of borings; the borings should be pounded if large. These ingredients must be well mixed and moistened with water, and will be ready for use in from one to two hours. Caulk the socket two-thirds full of yarn, and finish with one-third of borings. The less borings used the better, for a slight expansive action occurs in the borings when setting, and this causes the splitting of sockets. If there are only one or two joints, get some white lead and add sufficient dry red lead to make a stiff putty; thin a little of this with boiled oil, and paint inside the socket first. Then caulk in alternate layers of yarn and putty, commencing with the yarn and finishing with the putty. This cement is longer in setting than the former one.