The most prolific cause of smoking with open ranges is the large open space that exists over the range and forms the mouth of the chimney. The draught in Those ranges is not very keen at the best, and the large area allows quite cold air to rest there and to pass freely into the chimney, with the worst possible results on the up-draught of smoke and heated air. This is overcome by the use of a blower, which is a sheet of metal carried across the front of the range opening at the top, from jamb to jamb of the mantelpiece. This causes all air entering the chimney to come closer down to the tire and receive warmth, for while cold air impedes the up-draught, hot air accelerates it. A t.-ranked metal pot will often prevent the down-draught, whilst a blower will stop the general smoking. The blower can be made temporarily of eard-board or paper to find the depth required.