The fixed residue of vegetables exposed to a strong heat whilst protected from the access of the atmospheric air. In countries where wood abounds, charcoal is prepared by forming it into a conical stack, covered with clay and turf to the depth of several inches, leaving an aperture at the top for the escape of the smoke, and several small apertures at bottom for the admission of air at first lighting of the pile, but which are carefully closed as soon as the ignition is supposed complete. Charcoal is also made on a great scale by charring wood in iron cylinders, as described under the head of Acetic Acid. Charcoal has been prepared lately in France from turf or peat, and is said to be superior to that prepared from wood. In a goldsmith's furnace it fused 11 ounces of gold in 8 minutes; whilst wood charcoal required 16 minutes to produce the same effect The malleability of the gold, too, was preserved in the former instance, but not in the latter. From the scarcity of wood in this country, pitcoal charred is much used instead of charcoal, and is known by the name of coke.