Carefully remove all dirt and extraneous matter with the stopping knife and duster; those places near the eye should be rubbed with pumice-stone, and greasy places should be well rubbed with turpentine. Bring forward new patches and decayed parts with a coat of priming; stop and make good with putty, then proceed with the first coat, or second colour, in turpentine. The quality of the next coat will depend upon the manner in which it is to be finished. If it is to be painted twice in oil, and flatted, the next coat, or third colour, should be mixed up chiefly in oil, and tinted like the finishing colour, to form a ground for the flatting. The greater the shine of the ground, the more dead will the finishing coat or flatting be; likewise, the more dead the ground, the better will the finishing oil shine; therefore, it is a general rule that for finishing in oil the under coat should be turpentine, and for finishing flat, the under coat, or ground colour, should be oil; but observe, that all turpentine under coats have a little oil with them, and all oil under coats; except the priming or first coat on new work, have a little turpentine with them.

Knotting is made with red lead, carefully ground, and thinned with boiled oil and a little turpentine. For inside work, red lead, carefully ground in water, and mixed up with double size, is a good substitute, and is generally used: it must be used hot.