The priming is a composition of strong size and whiting. The size should be of a consistency between the common double size and glue, and mixed with as much whiting as will give it a good body, so as to hide the surface of whatever it is laid upon. But when the work is of a more particular kind, it is better to employ the glover's or the parchment size, instead of the common, and if about a fourth of isinglass be added it will be still better, and if not laid on too thick, will be much less liable to peel or crack. The work should be prepared for this priming by being well cleaned, and brushed over with hot size, diluted with two-thirds of water, provided it be of common strength; the priming should then be laid on with a brush as evenly as possible, and left to dry. If the surface be tolerably even on which the priming is used, two coats of it laid on in this manner will be sufficient; but if on trial with a wet rag or sponge it will not receive a proper water polish on account of any inequalities not sufficiently filled up, one or more coats must be given it. Previous to the last coat being laid on, the work should be smoothed by rubbing it with the Dutch rushes, or fine glass paper.

When the last coat is dry, the water polish should be given, by passing over every part of it with a fine rag or sponge moistened, till the whole appear perfectly plain and even; the priming will then be completed, and the work ready to receive the japan ground, or coloured varnish. But when wood or leather is to be japanned, the latter being first securely stretched on a frame or board, and no priming is used, the best preparation is to lay on two or three coats of coarse varnish, prepared in the following manner: "Take of rectified spirits of wine one pint, and of coarse seed-lac and resin, each two ounces. Dissolve the seed-lac and resin in the spirit, and then strain off the varnish." This varnish, like all others formed of spirits of wine, must be laid on in a warm place, and all dampness should be avoided; for either cold or moisture chills it, and thus prevents its taking proper hold of the substance on which it is laid. When the work is so prepared, or by the priming with the composition of size and whiting before described, the proper japan ground must be laid on.