Thin leaves or sheets, fabricated of fibrous materials, and adapted to write or draw upon, as well as for numerous other purposes. Paper is an article of such immense importance in the commercial world, and of such general and extensive utility, that it will be well to give, in this place, a brief description of the several kinds manufactured in this country; for this purpose, we shall divide them into three classes, viz.: - Writing Papers, Printing Papers, and Wrapping or Packing Papers, with a short notice of several miscellaneous kinds, not included under either of these heads.

Writing Papers are a very numerous class, including all those that are used for writing or drawing purposes. Writing papers are called either laid or wove, according to the description of mould upon which they have been made. Laid papers are distinguished by their retaining the wire-marks, in long parallel lines, crossed at intervals by other stronger lines, as shown in the accompanying sketch. Wove papers, on the contrary, bear no impression of the wires, the mould used for their manufacture being made of very fine copper wire, woven in a manner similar to linen - whence the derivation of the term wove. Writing papers are made of two different colours, blue and yellow. The yellow cast is the natural colour of the rag, heightened as much as possible by skilful bleaching. The blue cast is obtained by adding smalt (the powder blue of commerce,) to the pulp, while in the vat. In all blue cast papers a considerable difference of colour exists between the two sides of a sheet, from the smalt, which is a heavy material, falling to the side of the sheet next to the mould: the under side, therefore, is always the bluest when the paper is finished.

Laid paper is mostly of the blue cast; wove papers are made of both kinds. Drawing papers, which are included in this class, are always made of the yellow cast, on wove moulds; and writing papers, (emphatically so called from demy •upwards,) are always made of the blue cast, on laid moulds. In describing any of the numerous varieties of post, copy, foolscap, or pott papers, the distinguishing term, laid, yellow-wove, or blue-wove, is always necessary to be used; but in all papers from demy upwards, wove and drawing, or laid and writing, are synonymous terms; where no distinguishing term is used, laid is always understood to be meant At the paper-mill, all kinds of paper are put up in certain parcels, called reams; a ream of paper consists of twenty quires, viz., eighteen quires of twenty-four perfect sheets, and two quires of twenty sheets each, defective paper, one of which is placed at the top, the other at the bottom of the ream, to preserve the perfect or inside paper from string-marks, and other injuries, to which, but for this precaution, it would be liable. If the two outside quires are replaced by two perfect quires, the ream is stated to be all insides, and the original value is increased five per cent.

A printer's ream consists of twenty-one and a half unbroken quires, of twenty-four sheets each, and is called a perfect ream; the perfecting, as it is technically termed, increases the value one eighth.

The following comprehensive table gives the names, dimensions, and weight, per ream, of the several papers in this class.

Paper 149

Writing and Drawing Papers.

NAME.

DIMENSIONS

Inches. Inches.

WEIGHT

lbs.

Antiquarian ..........................................

52 1/2

by

30 1/2

236

Double elephant ...................................

391/2

-

26 1/2

140

Atlas ....................................................

33

-

26

100

Colombier ............................................

34 1/2

-

23

100

Elephant ...............................................

28

-

23

72

Imperial ................................................

29 1/2

-

21 1/2

72

Super royal ..........................................

271/2

-

19 1/4

52

Royal ....................................................

23 1/2

-

19

44

Medium ...............................................

22 1/4

-

17 1/4

34

Demy ..................................................

19 1/2

-

15 1/4

24

Extra large thick post ...........................

22 1/4

-

17 1/4

25

Ditto ditto thin ditto ............................

22 1/4

-

17 1/4

18

Ditto ditto bank ditto ..........................

22 1/4

-

17 1/4

13

Large thick post ..................................

21

-

16 1/2

22

Ditto middle ditto .................................

21

-

16 1/2

19

Ditto thin ditto ................................

21

-

16 1/2

16

Ditto bank ditto .................................

21

-

16 1/2

11

Extra thick ditto ................................

19

-

15 1/4

25

Thick post ............................................

19

-

15 1/4

20

Middle ditto .........................................

19

-

15 1/4

17

Thin ditto ..........................................

19

-

15 1/4

14

Bank ditto .........................................

19

-

15 1/4

7

Copy ....................................................

20

-

16

17

Sheet-and-half foolscap .......................

25 1/2

-

13 1/4

22

Sheet-and-third ditto ............................

22

-

13 1/4

20

Extra thick foolscap ..............................

16 1/2

-

13 1/4

18

Foolscap ..............................................

16 1/2

-

13 1/4

15

Pott ......................................................

15 1/2

-

12 1/2

10

Drawing papers are not made smaller than demy, and are put up into reams in the flat state; writing papers, on the contrary, are not made larger than double elephant, very seldom larger than imperial, and are usually folded. The laid papers are distinguished by certain peculiar water marks; thus, post has a bugle-horn; copy, a fleur-de-lis; foolscap, a lion rampant, or Britannia; and pott paper has the English arms. By a knowledge of these marks, the original size of any paper can at once be discovered, however much it may have been subsequently reduced in size. This observation only applies to the laid papers, as in wove paper the water-mark never appears.

The post papers are seldom sold retail in the folio, i. e. the original size, as quoted in the foregoing list; being usually cut in half, folded, and ploughed round the edges, forming, in that state, quarto post, the letter-paper of the shops. This, cut and again folded, forms octavo post, or note-paper; another folding forms 16mo. or small note, etc, and so on to any required extent, - for this repeated folding is frequently carried so far as the production of 64mo. post, or lilliputian note paper. After the paper has been ploughed, the edges are left plain, or they may be gilt or blacked, according to fancy. When papers are folded the broadest way, they are described as broad folio; but if folded the narrow way, they are termed long folio. The other foldings are distinguished in like manner, as long or broad quarto, or octavo. These terms are mostly used in describing account-books.

Writing paper is made in all parts of England; but Maidstone, in Kent, is noted for producing the finest qualities; here all the best drawing papers are made, the celebrated manufactures of "J. Whatman," and the "Turkey Mill," being most in repute.