The effect of the grain in this wood is produced by the horn graining-tool, which very much resembles a comb, but the teeth are not pointed. The teeth of the graining-tool are of equal dimensions from the root to the extremity, which is square, and the interstices between them are as small as they can be cut. The principal colour used is burnt umber; this, with a little touch of black and purple brown, makes an excellent wainscot colour, - or a little raw sienna may be used with it. This colour must be tempered with a peculiar vehicle called graining oil, which is made by dissolving two ounces of bees'-wax in as much turpentine as will just cover it, and make it easy to dissolve, and by adding one pint of boiled oil, stirring it well while mixing. When it is cold it will be of the consistence of soft honey, and will, when to be used, require the addition of a little boiled oil and turpentine: a small quantity of colour is sufficient to stain a large quantity of oil. The graining colour is to be laid on very evenly and very bare. The brush marks, if not pounced out with the end of the brush or duster, must lie in the direction of the grain of the wood.
The horn graining-tool is then to be passed over it, to imitate the grain; it should be held in a slightly inclined position, and drawn along with a small waving motion, with a little pressure, passing twice over every part of the work. The veins are then to be put in, or rather wiped off, which is best done with a piece of cotton stocking, or wash leather, wrapped over the thumb nail. The veining is the most difficult part of it; and any directions that might be given, other than to observe nature closely, would be quite unavailing; nothing but a close observation of the peculiar character of the veins displayed in nature, with considerable practice, will enable any person to do it, even tolerably. As soon as it is dry, the dark shades observed in the wood are to be put in: for this purpose a little turpentine, stained with burnt umber, ground in oil, is sufficient; also the dark veins are sometimes put in with a hair pencil, and a little burnt umber and burnt ochre, diluted with turpentine. When quite dry, it may be varnished, and is then finished.