The composition of paints should be governed - (1) by the nature of the material to be painted : thus the paints respectively best adapted for wood and iron differ considerably; (2) by the kind of surface to be covered - a porous surface requires more oil than one that is impervious; (3) by the nature and appearance of the work to be done : delicate tints require colourless oil, a flatted surface must be painted without oil (which gives gloss to a shining surface), paints for surfaces intended to be varnished must contain a minimum of oil; (4) by the climate and the degree of exposure to which the work will be subjected: for outside work boiled oil is used, because it weathers better than raw oil, turps is avoided as much as possible, because it evaporates and does not last; if, however, the work is to be exposed to the sun, turps is necessary to prevent the paint from blistering; (5) the skill of the painter affects the composition; a good workman can lay on even coats with a smaller quantity of oil and turps than one who is unskilful; extra turps, especially, are often added to save labour; (6) the quality of the materials makes an important difference in the proportions used: thus more oil and turps will combine with pure than with impure white-lead; thick oil must be used in greater quantity than thin; when paint is purchased ready ground in oil, a soft paste will require less turps and oil for thinning than a thick; (7) the different coats of paint vary in their composition: the first coat laid on to new work requires a good deal of oil to soak into the material; on old work, the first coat requires turpentine to make it adhere; the intermediate coats contain a proportion of turpentine to make them work smoothly; and to the final coats the colouring materials are added, the remainder of the ingredients being varied according as the surface is to be glossy or flat.

The exact proportions of ingredients best to be used in mixing paints vary according to their quality, the nature of the work required, the climate, and other considerations. The composition of paint for different coats also varies considerably. The proportions given in the following table must only be taken as an approximate guide when the materials are of good quality : -

Table showing the Composition of the different Coats of White Paint, and the Quantities required to cover 100 yd. of newly-worked Pine.

Red-lead.

White-lead.

Raw

Linseed-oil.

Boiled Linseed-oil.

Turpentine.

Driers.

Remarks.

Inside work, 4 coats not flatted.

lb.

lb.

pt.

lb.

Priming.......

1/2

16

6

...

. .

1/4

Sometimes more red-lead is used and less drier.

2nd coat.............

15

3 1/2

1 1/2

1/4

3rd coat....

13

2 1/2

..

1 1/2

1/4

* Sometimes just enough red-lead is used to give a flesh-coloured tint.

4th coat........

13

2 1/2

••

1 1/2

1/4

Inside work, 4 coats and flatting.

Priming...........

1 1/2

16

6

1

1-8

2nd coat........

12

4

1*

1-10

3rd coat........

12

4

1-10

4th coat........

12

4

1-10

0

..

3 1/2

1-10

Outside work, 4 coats not flatted.

When the finished colour is not to be pure white, it is better to have nearly all the oil boiled oil. All boiled oil does not work well. For pure white, a larger proportion of raw oil is necessary, because boiled oil is too dark.

Priming...

2

18 1/2

2

2

...

1-8

2nd coat...

15

2

2

1/2

1-10

3rd coat........

15

2

2

1/2

1-10

4th coat.......

15

3

2 1/2

..

1-10

For every 100 sq. yd., besides the materials enumerated in the foregoing, 2 1/2 lb. white-lead and 5 lb. putty will be required for stopping. The area which a given quantity of paint will cover depends upon the nature of the surface to which it is applied, the proportion of the ingredients, and the state of the weather. When the work is required to dry quickly, more turpentine is added to all the coats. In repainting old work, two coats are generally required, the old paint being considered as priming. Sometimes another coat may be deemed necessary. For outside old work exposed to the sun, both coats should contain 1 pint turpentine and 4 pints boiled oil, the remaining ingredients being as stated in the foregoing table. The extra turpentine is used to prevent blistering. In cold weather more turpentine should be used to make the paint flow freely.